Presentation on theme: "Objectives: To revise fractional distillation. To explain why large hydrocarbons are cracked. Outcomes: All of you will be able to explain what is meant."— Presentation transcript:
Objectives: To revise fractional distillation. To explain why large hydrocarbons are cracked. Outcomes: All of you will be able to explain what is meant by fractional distillation. Most of you will be able to explain why cracking is carried out. Some of you will be able to recognise an alkene from a structural or molecular formulae.
Revision – Fractional Distillation 13.09.10 Starter: List all the fuels you think you have used so far today and how you have used them e.g. 1) Gas – cooking breakfast.
Crude oil Where is it found? What is it used for? What is it? What is it made up of?
Small molecules Medium molecules Big molecules
Fuel gasBurned in the refinery to fuel the distillation process, sold as LPG, purified and sold as bottled camping gas. Petrol/ gasoline.Fuel for cars and motorcycles, also used to make chemicals. NaphthaUsed to make chemicals. Paraffin/ Kerosine Fuel for greenhouse heaters and jet engines, manufacture of chemicals. Diesel FuelFuel for lorries, trains. Fuel/ Lubricating oil Fuel for the heating systems of large buildings, fuel for ships, lubricating oil. BitumenRoofing, and road surfaces.
Fractional distillation Crude oil can be separated by fractional distillation. The oil is evaporated and the hydrocarbon chains of different lengths condense at different temperatures: Fractions with low boiling points condense at the top Fractions with high boiling points condense at the bottom
Long chain molecules.Short chain molecules Does not flow very well as they are very thick. Flows easily (they are quite thin). They are less flammable (do not set on fire). Are flammable (will set on fire). Less volatile (does not turn into a gas). Quite volatile (will evaporate). Have a high boiling point.Have Low boiling points.
Butane Ethane For example, this bond can be “cracked” to give two of these: Butane For example, this bond can be “cracked” to give two of these: Ethane Cracking Shorter chain hydrocarbons are in greater demand because they burn easier. They can be made from long chain hydrocarbons by “cracking”:
Making Hydrocarbons. 1)Decane C 10 H 22 2)Butane C 4 H 10 3)Pentane C 5 H 12 4)Ethane C 2 H 6 5) Propene C 3 H 6. 6) Ethene C 2 H 4.
Which is a correct statement about crude oil? A.A mixture of carbohydrates. B.Formed by the decay of dead sea creatures. C.Consist of a mixture of very large molecules. D.Is purified in an oil rig.
Which is a correct statement about fractional distillation? A.Oil is separated into fractions with the same size molecule. B.Oil is separated into fractions with the same density. C.Oil is separated into fractions with similar size molecules. D.Oil is separated into alkanes and alkenes.
Which is a correct order for these fractions working down from the top of the column? A. Fuel gas, kerosine, petrol, diesel, bitumen. B. Fuel gas, diesel, kerosine, petrol, bitumen. C. Fuel gas, petrol, diesel, kerosine, bitumen. D. Fuel gas, petrol, kerosine, diesel, bitumen.
Which of these is a true statement about the changes that occur as hydrocarbon molecules get larger? A.Boiling point decreases. B.Viscosity increases. C.Flammability increases. D.Transparency increases.
Which of these is an alkane? A.C 6 H 14 B.C 4 H 8 C.C 12 H 24 D.C 102 H 204
Which of these is a true statement about alkenes? A.They turn bromine water from colourless to red B.They contain a double bond C.The smallest alkene has 1 carbon atom D.They have names that end in “ane.”