From Solar Flow to Fossil Fuel Stock Population growth cut timber a) domestic heating b) industrial fuel (charcoal) c) clear arable land Regional supply crises Burning coal for direct energy - household (dirty, smelly) - some industries (progress) No real advance until 18 th C in -understanding combustion -illumination technology (open oil lamps) Spread of coal technological and intellectual revolution
Dangers (among others) “choke damp” CO2 sudden rush “white damp” CO after fire, explosion “fire damp” methane leaks build up shaft roof miners open flame lamp PLUS – pneumoconiosis
Coal Feeds On Itself Newcomen – Watt steam engines Uses: (1) pump water from coal mines (2) railways to carry coal to urban industry (3) replace human labor in industry Shift: water power to steam power mass rural-urban shift handicraft to mass prod.
Economic and Political Results Urbanization Industrialization Mass employment Chemical agric. Triumph of Market Mass consumption Competive exports Economic warfare Public health disaster Land aggrandizement Mass unemployment Chemical toxification Triumph of the Market! Commodity fetishism End of protectionism End of autarky
Chemicals: From Biomass to Synthetic Organic Heating coal: coke, coal-gas, tar Uses of coke, from iron to steel Coke advantages -less sulfur to ruin iron -greater heat permits steel -less fumes Commercialize coal-gas IR, lightening revolution – fossil solar light Uses of coal tar first pitch for navy then explore chemical nature
Early Organic Transformations Early Human Interventions by: -Distillation -Heat Transformation -Fermentation Key: processes mimic (accelerate) nature products chemically simpler than sources relatively few combos C H
Coal-Chemical Revolution Uses fossilized instead of biomass C Fantastic number of combinations Complex molecules No natural analogues Toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic Non or slow degradation Breakdown products sometimes worse
Early Coal Tar Derivatives -Macintosh waterproof (coal tar and rubber) -phenol or carbolic acid (medicine) -synthetic urea (fertilizer) -isolating benzene (first “evergreen”) -search for synthetic quinine led to… -first chemical dyes
Coal Tech-Breakthroughs Dyestuffs-- Medical – anaesthics and antiseptics antipyrin, aspirin etc. antibiotics follow Plastics, synthetic fibres etc. Range of industrial, commercial chemicals IMPACT -Transform consumer products -Emergence of transnational firms
Nitrogen Cycle building block for amino acids (proteins) atmosphere 80% - non reactive N2, plants need N N2 traditionally split by – electricity (lightning) - bacterial (N2 NH3 NO3) (crop rotation) Or other bioavailable nitrogen from manure etc.
Nitrogen: Historical Solutions 1) Fallowing fields (lightning, bacterial decomp. etc) 2) 18 th C Agricultural Revolution crop rotation clover nodules 3) 19 early 20 C extensive exploitation new lands, nitrogen bank horse power (oats, natural fertilizer) mixed farms, grain for cash sales 4) Nitrogen wars (nitrate rock & guano rush) 5) Search for high tech solution
High Tech Solutions a) coke or coal gas ammonia byproduct b) Haber-Bosch Process George Haber (dye merchant family) Carl Bosch (Badische Anilin- und Soda- Fabrik) N from air, H from coal N2+3H2 2NH3
Impact of World War I Nature of War Demand : - explosives (ammonia supply - Haber Bosch) - poison gas -medical needs -food requirements, agro changes (HB) -food storage, transport changes (trucks replacing horses)
Search for a Scapegoat -Bolshevik Revolution, need to placate working class at home -Realization Germany really ought to have won first total war -need for scapegoat – gas warfare, German chemical industry
Looting German Chemical Industry - Versailles -surrender 50% stored dyes -plus 25% monthly production -80% dye works in Occupied Rhineland -all future production monitored by Allies -patents, trademarks permanently lost -Allies tore down some facilities (competitive) -Allied officials encouraged industrial theft, espionage -lost coal Silesia, Saar -huge coal reparations France Belgium -massive confiscation railway cars
The DuPont Empire - history with US military -WWI 40% Allied explosives -War profits lead to takeovers -target German patents, scientists -political power gets tariffs etc. -wave of new coal-chemical products (fertilizers, pesticides, textiles, industrial chemicals etc.)
American Auto-Craze 1920s Impact World War I Rising disposable income Price cutting competition Cheap gasoline Government road building US social psychology Mass market strategy - installment credit second hand market annual model change mass advertising
20 th Century Industrial Transformation 1)Impact of World War I - mass industries, war demand -modern advertising industry (tax exempt for war prop.) 2) 1920s (“Modern Times”) -assembly line homogenized product, -homogenized consumer -divert political dissent into self indulgence
Emergence of Mass Consumption Tools – mass media brand loyalty packaging Impact: -homogenized consumer tastes -changing role of merchant -importance of “sales effort”
Chemurgy: Gasahol Revolution Required: -end of Prohibition -special tax breaks -counter political power of oil companies -support of chemical, auto industry BUT INSTEAD: 1.World War II 2.Postwar Auto Craze 3.Petrochemical Revolution 4.Military Keynesianism
Automobiles: In Search of Fuel? Options: steam electricity biofuels gasoline? Formerly an unprofitable, largely useless or dangerous byproduct of kerosene
Petrochemical Coup? Results of Marijuana Tax Act Killed legal hemp business (yes) Helped consolidate shift from biomass to fossil fuel (?) Real reason: -US oil glut -impact World War II
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