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© Boardworks Ltd 2005 1 of 30 KS4 Chemistry Useful Oil
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 2 of 30 Useful Oil Physical properties of fractions Uses of fractions Crude oil Summary activities Fractional distillation Contents
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 3 of 30 mixtureCrude oil is a mixture. It contains hundreds of different compounds. Some are small but most are large. only.Nearly all of these compounds contain carbon and hydrogen only. They are called hydrocarbons. only Hydrocarbons are molecules that contain carbon and hydrogen only. Crude oil
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 4 of 30 An oil rig Crude oil is often located underneath the sea bed. Oil rigs or drilling platforms are used to drill through the sea bed to obtain the oil.
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 5 of 30 Crude oil is a mixture of different sized hydrocarbons. The exact composition depends upon where the oil comes from but typically it contains a lot of big molecules. Small molecules Medium molecules Big molecules Hydrocarbons
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 6 of 30 These hydrocarbons are vital to our way of life. We use them as highly portable fuels for many forms of transport. We also use them as raw materials from which a huge range of useful everyday substances are made. The importance of oil
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 7 of 30 Although we can get useful substances from oil, crude oil itself has no uses. In order to make crude oil into useful substances we first have to separate the mixture into molecules of similar size. oil refineryThis is done in an oil refinery. Making oil useful
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 8 of 30 An oil refinery Crude oil is separated into useful fractions in an oil refinery
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 9 of 30 Physical properties of fractions Uses of fractions Crude oil Summary activities Fractional distillation Contents Useful Oil
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 10 of 30 fractional distillation.Crude oil is split into fractions containing similar sized molecules using fractional distillation. The oil is heated until it vaporises. It then passes up a tall tower that is hot at the bottom but cool at the top. As the vapour passes up this tower the molecules cool and condense back to liquid. coolcool hothot Fractional distillation
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 11 of 30 Copy the column and arrange the fractions in the right order next to the arrows. FractionBoiling Range ( o C) Kerosine150 - 240 Diesel220 – 275 Petrol40 - 175 Bitumen>350 Fuel gasBelow 40 Lubricating oil250-350 coolcool hothot Fuel gas Petroleum Kerosine Diesel Lub. Oil Bitumen Fractions and boiling points
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 12 of 30 How fractional distillation works
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 13 of 30 Useful Oil Physical properties of fractions Uses of fractions Crude oil Summary activities Fractional distillation Contents
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 14 of 30 We have already said that, in general, the bigger the molecule the higher the boiling point. No. Carbon atoms B.Pt ( o C) The boiling point of hydrocarbons
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 15 of 30 Here are the boiling ranges of some fractions obtained from distillation of petroleum. 1. Using the previous graph, estimate the size range of the molecules present in each fraction. FractionBoiling Range ( o C) Number of carbons Fuel gasBelow 40 Petrol40 - 175 Kerosine150 - 240 Diesel220 - 275 1-5 5-10 9-14 13-17 Boiling point and fraction size
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 16 of 30 When hydrocarbons burn they are reacting with oxygen in the air. In general, the smaller the molecule the better it will mix and then react with the air. Flammability of hydrocarbons
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 17 of 30 Flash points are (roughly) the temperature below which you cannot ignite the substance. Here is some flash points data for oil fractions. Link the molecule to the flash point. SubstanceFlash Point Kerosine<23 Petrol85 - 150 Fuel Oil23 - 61 Flash points
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 18 of 30 When we pour a liquid the molecules have to pass each other. The easier they do this, the runnier the liquid is. The molecules in fuel oil and bitumen may contain up to 400 carbon atoms in long chain structures. These chains easily become entangled reducing the runniness of the liquid and so those made up of big molecules tend to be viscous (treacly) not runny. Viscosity of hydrocarbons
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 19 of 30 In contrast, small molecules are more spherical and tend not to get tangled. They are therefore likely to have a low viscosity (be runny). Bigger molecules Higher viscosity “Treacly” Smaller molecules Lower viscosity “Runny” Viscosity of hydrocarbons
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 20 of 30 Here are the viscosities of 5 hydrocarbons. The higher the value the less runny the hydrocarbon is. Draw arrows joining the hydrocarbon with the appropriate value. HydrocarbonViscosity (cP) Pentane - C 5 H 12 0.40 Hexane - C 6 H 12 0.52 Heptane - C 7 H 16 0.24 Octane - C 8 H 18 0.92 Decane - C 10 H 22 0.70 Matching hydrocarbons to their viscosity
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 21 of 30 Small hydrocarbon molecules are gases or transparent liquids. As the molecules get larger the colour becomes increasingly yellow through to the brown/black colour of bitumen used on roads and roof repairs. Increasing size of molecules Colour of hydrocarbons
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 22 of 30 We already know that each petroleum fraction consist of hydrocarbon molecules falling within a particular size range. The proportions of the different hydrocarbons present in oil can vary greatly across the world. It is therefore not surprising that the exact nature of the fractions collected will vary both in amount and detailed composition. Nonetheless most crude oil will give rise to some quantity of each type of fraction. Composition of fractions
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 23 of 30 Using viscosity data for crude oil from different areas of the world, arrange the oils putting those with the smallest molecules first. CrudeOrderViscosity (cSt) Saudi Arabia47.7 UK (Brent)6.13 Norway (Gulifaks)16.5 Alaskan31.5 Malaysian3.43 1 2 3 4 5 Viscosity of different crude oil
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 24 of 30 Physical properties of fractions Uses of fractions Crude oil Summary activities Fractional distillation Contents Useful Oil
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 25 of 30 Fuel gas Petrol / gasoline Naphtha Paraffin / kerosine Diesel fuel Fuel and lubricating oil Bitumen Burned in the refinery to fuel the distillation process, sold as LPG, purified and sold as bottled camping gas Fuel for cars and motorcycles, also used to make chemicals. Used to make chemicals. Fuel for greenhouse heaters and jet engines, manufacture of chemicals. Fuel for lorries, trains. Fuel for the heating systems of large buildings, fuel for ships, lubricating oil. Roofing, and road surfaces. Uses of different fractions
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 26 of 30 The apparatus below is used to test the products of combustion of a hydrocarbon. any hydrocarbon + oxygen water + carbon dioxide Suction pump Candle wax is the hydrocarbon here ice- water Liquid collected can be tested with anhydrous cobalt chloride paper (blue pink). Lime water Burning hydrocarbons
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 27 of 30 Physical properties of fractions Uses of fractions Crude oil Summary activities Fractional distillation Contents Useful Oil
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 28 of 30 Glossary combustion – A rapid reaction between a substance and oxygen that produces heat and light energy. crude oil – A naturally-occurring mixture of hydrocarbons and other substances. flammable – A substance that easily catches fire and burns rapidly. fractional distillation – The process used to separate crude oil into different fractions. hydrocarbon – A molecule containing only hydrogen and carbon. viscosity – A measure of how easily a liquid flows.
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 29 of 30 Anagrams
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 30 of 30 Multiple-choice quiz
© Boardworks Ltd 2003 KS4 Useful Products from Organic Sources ORGANIC CHEMISTRY.
Crude oil mixtureCrude oil is a mixture. It contains hundreds of different compounds. Some are small but most are large. only.Nearly all of these compounds.
© Boardworks Ltd 2003 Unit 2 Fuels ORGANIC CHEMISTRY.
L.O: To know how crude oil can be separated into fractions.
Useful Products from Organic Sources ORGANIC CHEMISTRY.
© Boardworks Ltd of 25. © Boardworks Ltd of 25.
© Boardworks Ltd 2001 KS4: Useful Products from Organic Sources ORGANIC CHEMISTRY.
Fractions from oil. Making crude oil useful Before crude oil can be used, it must first be separated into fractions. This process is called fractional.
C1a 3 Crude oil Burning fuels and cleaner fuels. Learning objectives Understand what is produced when fuels burn Understand what is produced when fuels.
Noadswood Science, Crude Oil To understand what crude oil is and how it can be used Saturday, August 08, 2015.
Odd one out – Look at the following images. Take a line – which is the odd one out and why?
Objectives: To revise fractional distillation. To explain why large hydrocarbons are cracked. Outcomes: All of you will be able to explain what is meant.
Crude oil is produced over millions of years by the breakdown of plant and animal remains at high temperature and pressure below the sea. It is composed.
GCSE Core Chemistry Exam tip; You MUST be able to explain how fractional distillation works. Small molecules (compounds with low bp) are at the top of.
© Boardworks Ltd of 37. © Boardworks Ltd of 37.
CRUDE OIL A guide for GCSE students KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING.
What is crude oil? Crude oil -.. What is crude oil? Crude oil - Oil we find underground.
Post it Pollutants are dangerous chemicals in the air are called pollutants. Name as many air pollutants as you can from last lesson. Extension: Circle.
IGCSE CHEMISTRY SECTION 5 LESSON 2. Content The iGCSE Chemistry course Section 1 Principles of Chemistry Section 2 Chemistry of the Elements Section 3.
Crude Oil Formation, Composition, Purification and Properties.
COMBUSTION Describe the process of combustion Write word and symbol equations for combustion reactions. https://www.youtube.co m/watch?v=zEjEqnMBdE M https://www.youtube.co.
Calderglen High School.
The Plan Section 9.5 Crude Oil Refining Section 9.6 (very brief) on Combustion Review (if time)
Oil refining and its Products. Petrol and Crude Oil Crude oil is separated by fractional distillation works because the molecules have different boiling/condensation.
AQA GCSE Science & Additional Science Chemistry 1 Topic 4 Hodder Education Revision Lessons Crude oil and fuels Crude oils and fuels Click to continue.
Petroleum Chapter 10 Notes. Petroleum Fossil fuel –Formed hundreds of millions of years ago from dead plants & animals which were subjected to great heat.
© Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 36 KS3 Chemistry 8F Compounds and Mixtures.
Crude oil is a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons, often found together with natural gas. The lighter hydrocarbons- methane, ethane, propane a butane occur.
1 The Oil Industry Produced by Peter Hollamby. This presentation includes Flash animations running within PowerPoint. For this to work the following will.
The Haber Process The Haber Process combines nitrogen from the air with hydrogen derived mainly from natural gas (methane) into ammonia. The reaction is.
Crude Oil. Microscopic plants and animals die and fall to the sea bed Layers of sand and mud form on top Pressure and high temperature cause oil to form.
Crud oil conversion. Questions What is the crud oil? Distillation technology Cracking.
Carbon Compounds 2a Int
Module 4 – Chemistry in action Crude oil Formation, extraction and separation.
© Boardworks Ltd of 37. © Boardworks Ltd of 37 Supply and demand The amount of each type of fraction obtained by fractional distillation does.
Composition of constituents The composition of constituent of a mixture is not fix. Air is made up of a mixture of gases. There is ___ % nitrogen gas,
IGCSE CHEMISTRY SECTION 3 LESSON 1. Content The iGCSE Chemistry course Section 1 Principles of Chemistry Section 2 Chemistry of the Elements Section 3.
HydroCarbons. What is a hydrocarbon? When hydrogen and carbon combine to form a simple or complex molecule States range from gas to a tar like substance.
The Oil Industry. Importance of oil as a chemical feedstock Crude oil is a mixture of many different hydrocarbons which was produced from the decay of.
Organic Chemistry 10 Chemistry. Quiz Alkanes General Formula Description Combustion Reactivity Chemical test Uses C n H 2n+2 Saturated Burns in Oxygen.
Oil Refining + Octane Numbers. Fractional Distillation of Crude Oil How to become a millionaire Find a crude oil well and know how to fraction.
© Boardworks Ltd of 40. © Boardworks Ltd of 40.
Fuels A Fuel is a substance that produces Energy when burned. A good fuel releases its energy over a longer period of time A reaction in which energy.
Paints & Pigments BY LIVER MOODY. What is Paint? Paints are used to decorate Houses, Cars etc. or protect them from damage. A pigment is a coloured liquid.
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