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Hydrocarbon Names Saturated hydrocarbons (alkanes) have general formula C n H 2n+2 CH 4 methane C 2 H 6 ethane C 3 H 8 propane C 4 H 10 butane C 5 H 12.

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Presentation on theme: "Hydrocarbon Names Saturated hydrocarbons (alkanes) have general formula C n H 2n+2 CH 4 methane C 2 H 6 ethane C 3 H 8 propane C 4 H 10 butane C 5 H 12."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hydrocarbon Names Saturated hydrocarbons (alkanes) have general formula C n H 2n+2 CH 4 methane C 2 H 6 ethane C 3 H 8 propane C 4 H 10 butane C 5 H 12 pentane C 6 H 14 hexane C 7 H 16 heptane C 8 H 18 octane C 9 H 20 nonane C 10 H 22 decane Nonpolar bonds, only London dispersion forces

2 Acid Names All acid formulas start with H Binary acid names start with “hydro”, change root ending to “ic” and add “acid”. HCl hydrochloric acid HCN hydrocyanic acid HBr HI

3 Acid Names Binary acids are only named as acids when in water solution. Dry compounds are named as molecular compounds Example: HCl is hydrochloric acid in water solution, but hydrogen chloride as a free gas

4 Ternary acid names Use root of anion name followed by “-ic” or “-ous” and “acid” “-ic” is used with anions ending in “-ate” and “-ous” is used for “-ite”. H 2 SO 4 sulfuric acid H 3 PO 4 HNO 3 HClO 2

5 Exceptions to Octet rule Odd electron molecules (ex. NO 2 ) Electron deficient molecules (ex. BF 3 ) Expanded octet - only for period 3 and higher (ex. SF 6, PCl 5, SO 4 -2 )

6 Bond Polarity Bonds are polar when there is an unequal distribution of electrons in a bond

7 Bond Polarity Polar bonds are formed when two atoms of unequal electronegativity are bonded The bond has a “dipole moment” because of the  + and  - poles

8 Bond polarity EN difference of 0-0.4: nonpolar covalent EN difference of > : polar covalent EN difference of >1.4: ionic bond Greater dipole-dipole interactions means greater mp and bp Example: propane (C 3 H 8, 44amu) has boiling point -42ºC, dimethyl ether (CH 3 OCH 3, 46amu) has bp -23ºC

9 Molecular geometry VSEPR = valence shell electron pair repulsion Bonding and nonbonding pairs will arrange themselves around an atom so that they are as far from each other as possible 2 pairs - BeCl 2 Linear geometry, bond angle = 180º

10 Molecular geometry Three pairs - BH 3, CH 2 O Trigonal planar geometry, bond angle 120º Four pairs - CH 4 Tetrahedral geometry, bond angle = 109.5º Five pairs - PCl 5 (expanded octet) Trigonal bipyramid geometry, bond angles = 120º and 90º

11 Molecular geometry Six pairs - SF 6 Octahedral geometry, bond angles 90º Nonbonding Pairs Two bonding, one nonbonding - NO 2 - Bent geometry (anything with two bonding pairs and at least one nonbonding pair) Bond angle <120º, since nonbonding pair is larger

12 Molecular geometry Three bonding, one nonbonding (NH 3 ) Trigonal pyramidal geometry, <109.5º bond angle Hybridization Recombination of s and p orbitals to produce equivalent bonding orbitals Two atoms and/or lone pairs: sp hybridization

13 Hybridization Three atoms and/or lone pr.: sp 2 Four atoms and/or lone pr.: sp 3


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