2Objectives1. What is organic chemistry? In general, how do organic compounds differ from inorganic compounds?2. Why are there so many more organic compounds than inorganic compounds?3. What are hydrocarbons? What structural features identify alkanes? Alkenes? Alkynes? Aromatic hydrocarbons?4. How are alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, and aromatic hydrocarbons named using IUPAC nomenclature?5. What are the physical and chemical properties of alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, and aromatic hydrocarbons?
3Objectives 6. What is an alkyl group? 7. What are some products from reactions of alkanes? How are they formed?8. What are the major reactions of alkenes? What are the products of those reactions?9. What are polymers? How are they formed and utilized?10. What is petroleum and how is it utilized?
4Organic Chemistry Chemistry of compounds that contain carbon Combine mainly with hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogenOver 10 million compounds made with these 4 elements95% of compounds contain carbonForm stable, covalent bonds with each other
13Alkyl GroupA group of atoms that results when one hydrogen atom is removed from an alkaneCnH2n+1Change –ane ending to –ylMethylEthylPropyl
14Sec. 13.2 IUPAC Nomenclature Define IUPACExamine the rules for IUPAC namingDetermine the correct names of alkanes
15IUPAC Nomenclature Geneva, Switzerland 1892 International Union of Pure and Applied ChemistryIUPAC System of Nomenclature(isobutane, isopentane are common names)
16IUPAC Rules1. Name the longest chain in the parent compound. End in –ane. (Root name)Number each carbonSee Example2. Note the alkyl groups attached3. Number the carbon that the group is attached to.Must use the lowest number possible.
17IUPAC Rules Con’t4. Use prefixes to indicate the amount of attached groupsSee Example5. If there are more than two or more different substituents, list them in alphabetical order. If at equal points, lower alphabetical order given lowest number
18IUPAC Rules Con’t 6. Prefixes not included in alphabetizing See Example
59Sec AlkynesDefine alkyneName alkynes using IUPAC naming rules
60Alkynes Carbon atoms share 3 pairs of electrons, forming a triple bond AcetyleneAlkynes have similar properties to those of alkanes and alkenesNaming is the same, except they end in-yne
61Sec. 13.12 Benzene Objectives Recognize the versatile structure of a benzene ring
62Benzene Recognized by Michael Faraday in 1825 Six sided structure with single and double mobile bondsResonance—a word used to describe the phenomenon in which no single Lewis structure can be usedFigure
63Sec. 13.13 Structure and Nomenclature of Aromatic Compounds Define and name aromatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic compoundsDetermine the difference between ortho, meta, and para distribution
64Aromatic Compounds Benzene Named because thought to have strong aroma Now define as anything that has a benzene ringAliphatic compounds—nonaromatic