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SUBSTITUTED HYDROCARBONS Objective: to learn about organic compounds which contain oxygen Substituted Hydrocarbon: replace hydrogen atom(s) with other.

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Presentation on theme: "SUBSTITUTED HYDROCARBONS Objective: to learn about organic compounds which contain oxygen Substituted Hydrocarbon: replace hydrogen atom(s) with other."— Presentation transcript:

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2 SUBSTITUTED HYDROCARBONS Objective: to learn about organic compounds which contain oxygen Substituted Hydrocarbon: replace hydrogen atom(s) with other atoms 2 Main Groups: Alcohols Organic Acids

3 ALCOHOLS Contain a hydroxyl group (OH) in place of a hydrogen (H) atom Alcohols have a much higher boiling point than the original hydrocarbon Naming Alcohols: ends in “ol”. First, name the alkane, drop the e and add ol.

4 Example: Butane: C – C – C – C H H H H

5 Becomes Butanol: H H H H l l l l H – C – C – C – C - OH l l l l H H H H

6 ORGANIC ACIDS Contain a special group of atoms called a carboxyl group: COOH in place of a methyl group (CH 3 ) C - H H H with C -OH O Replace:

7 Naming Organic Acids: ends in “oic acid”. First, name the alkane, drop the e, and add oic acid.

8 Example Butane becomes Butanoic Acid: H H H O l l l ll H – C – C – C - C – OH l l l H H H

9 A third group of substituted hydrocarbons are called Esters. Esters are formed when an alcohol reacts with an organic acid. Esters smell sweet or fruity (perfumes).

10 OUTPUT Draw the one, two, and three carbon alkane, alcohol, and organic acid. You should have nine drawings altogether. Underneath each drawing, write its proper name.

11 QUESTIONS 1.How are ethane and ethanol alike? 2.From what alkane is pentanoic acid derived? 3.What would be the names of the alcohol and the organic acid derived from octane? 4.Which would have a higher boiling point, nonane or nonanol? 5.How would you know when an ester has been created?


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