2 Organic and inorganic compounds Organic chemistry concerns the chemistry of carbon compounds contain C and H, but also maybe other p-block elements.At the time of printing (Stoker, 5th edition), there were around 5 million organic compounds cataloguedInorganic chemistry concerns the chemistry of the other 117 elements. Around 1.5 million of these are knownNon-polarhydrocarbon tailA polar,charged group
3 Organic and inorganic compounds The reason why there are so many organic compounds is that carbon is very good at forming bonds with other carbon atoms.Carbon atoms are commonly found in chain-like arrangements or C-rings (or both within the same molecule).Carbon has four valence electrons. In organic compounds, it forms four covalent bonds to obtain an octet.
4 Hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives Hydrocarbons are compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen in their formulas.Two basic categories of hydrocarbon:Saturated hydrocarbons: all carbon atoms are connected together with single bondsUnsaturated hydrocarbons: involve one or more multiple (double, triple) C-C bondsHydrocarbon derivatives contain carbon and hydrogen, and one or more other elements (P, N, O, Cl, etc.)
5 Hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives Saturated hydrocarbons may be found in two possible formats:
6 Alkanes: acyclic saturated hydrocarbons An alkane is a saturated hydrocarbon that is acyclic (does not possess ring-structure).Because all C-C bonds are single bonds (and because the other bonds that carbon needs to get an octet are to H-toms), alkanes have the general formula CnH2n+2 (n = # of C-atoms)Examples of alkanes:CH4C2H6C3H8
7 Alkanes: acyclic saturated hydrocarbons In an alkane, each carbon is tetrahedral (it has four bonds to other atoms. Rem: VSEPR)CH4C2H6C3H8
8 Alkanes: acyclic saturated hydrocarbons Chemical formulas for alkanes are written as CnH2n+2; however, structural formulas give more information.Chemical formula reveals the type and number of each element in the compoundStructural formulas show how each atom in the molecule is connectedexpandedstructuralformulacondensedstructuralformulaname
9 Alkanes: acyclic saturated hydrocarbons For longer carbon chains, an abbreviated, condensed structural formula is advantageous, as it shows most of the information of the expanded formula without taking up as much spaceAn 8-carbon chain (two CH3-groupslinked by a 6-carbon chain (6-CH2- units)6 –CH2- units betweentwo CH3-groups
10 Alkanes: acyclic saturated hydrocarbons Sometimes, a simple skeletal structural formula can be used to convey hydrocarbon structuremeanthe samething
11 Alkane isomerismThe types of alkanes we’ve considered so far involve “straight chain” types, where the carbon atoms form a continuous series (i.e. no branches).When alkanes having four or more carbons are considered, there is more than one structural formula that can be used to describe a given molecular formula.
12 Alkane isomerismThe formula C4H10 can be represented by the following condensed structural formulas:These compounds possess the same chemical formula,but differ in the way the atoms are arranged (isomers)
13 Alkane isomerismThe C4H10 shown on the left is called a continuous chain alkane (or an unbranched/”straight-chain” alkane).The one on the right is called a “branched-chain” alkaneThese are called “constitutional isomers” which differ in their atom-to-atom connectivity
14 Alkane isomerismAs the number of carbon atoms in the alkane grows, so do the number of possible isomers.
15 Conformations of alkanes The carbon-carbon bonds in alkanes permit rotation of each carbon-group with respect to the others that are chemically bound to it.
16 Conformations of alkanes Conformations are specific, 3-dimensional arrangements of atoms in organic molecules (at some instant) that result from rotation about C-C single bonds.Several conformations of a six-carbon chain are shown using the skeletal structures below:All the same molecule: C6H14
17 Conformations of alkanes Note that the following two skeletal structures describe two different alkanes:Alkane on the left is a 6-carbon, continuous chain structure.Alkane on the right is a branched structure (a 5-carbon, continuouschain that has a 1-carbon branch)
18 Conformations of alkanes Do the following pairs of condensed structural formulas describe the same alkane?
19 IUPAC nomenclature for alkanes The names that have been shown for the branched alkanes so far are common names (made as these compounds were identified).As the number of organic compounds catalogued grew, a system for naming was developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).The basic system used is one that employs a prefix-type name.
20 IUPAC nomenclature for alkanes Names for continuous chain alkanes (first ten) are shown below. The names use a prefix (e.g. meth-) to designate the number of carbon atoms in the chain.Alkanes have ”ane” atthe end of their namePrefixMeth-Eth-Prop-But-Pent-Hex-Hept-Oct-Non-Dec-
21 IUPAC nomenclature for alkanes Branched-chain alkanes can be described as continuous-chain alkanes with branches (substituents).The IUPAC system of naming branched-chain alkanes describes the type and location of substituents before the name of the longest, continuous chain of carbon atoms in the alkane.Substituents are the “branches” in branched-chain alkanes. They are atoms (or groupsof atoms for the kind we’ll look at first) that hang off the main carbon chain.
22 IUPAC nomenclature for alkanes Substituents in branched-chain alkanes are called alkyl groups. An alkyl group is the group of atoms that would be created by removing a hydrogen atom from an alkane. They are named according to the alkane from which they are derived.To get the substituent name:take the alkane name andreplace the “ane” part with “yl”
23 IUPAC nomenclature for alkanes To name a branched alkane, follow these steps:1) Identify the longest, continuous carbon chain in the structure. This will be the base of the branched alkane’s name.So far, we know this compound is going to be called some kind of butane)
24 IUPAC nomenclature for alkanes 2) Number this chain in a way that gives the carbon(s) with the substituent the lowest possible, overall numbering. The methyl substituent is thus located on C-2 (carbon-2)(something something butane)
25 IUPAC nomenclature for alkanes After locating the alkyl substituent by number, prefix the parent-chain alkane name (the longest, continuous carbon chain) with the number and the name of the substituent:2-MethylbutaneSeparate the number from the substituent name with a hyphen, and the last substituent name reads directly into the parent chain alkane name
26 IUPAC nomenclature for alkanes Another exampleFind the longest, continuous chain of C-atomsNumber them in a way that gives all substituents the lowest total numberingPrefix the name of the parent alkane with the number and name of the substituent
27 IUPAC nomenclature for alkanes One with multiple substituents:2,3,4-TrimethylhexaneIn cases where multiple substituents of the same type are present, prefix thesubstituent name with di-, tri-, tetra-, etc. to indicate how many of them are present
28 IUPAC nomenclature for alkanes If more than one kind of substituent is present, the alphabetic order of the substituents take priority over the number of the substituent when numbering the parent chainSeparate differentsubstituents with hyphens3-Ethyl-4,5-dipropyloctane3-Ethyl-2-methylhexane(not 2-Methyl-3-ethylhexane)The prefix part of the propyl substituentsare not counted for alphabetical ordering(come back to this structure later)
29 IUPAC nomenclature for alkanes IUPAC punctuation rules:Separate numbers from letters with hyphensSeparate numbers from other numbers with commasDon’t separate the last substituent name from the parent alkane chain24-Ethyl-2,3-dimethyl-5-propylnonane13
30 Line-angle structural formulas for alkanes Line-angle structural formulas describe carbon-carbon bonds with straight lines (each point in the diagram represents a carbon atom with four bonds to carbon(s) and hydrogen(s) around it)It is understood that each C-atom has four bonds; C-H bonds are there, but not shown
31 Classification of carbon atoms The carbon atoms in organic structures are classified as primary, secondary, tertiary, or quaternary, depending on the number of other carbon atoms bound to them.Primary (1o) C: bounds to one other C-atomSecondary (2o) C: bound to two other C-atomsTertiary (3o) C: bound to three other C-atomsQuaternary (4o) C: bound to four other C-atoms1o4o3o2o
32 Branched-chain alkyl groups Sometimes, branched-chain substituents are encountered. These are named according to the parent alkane from which they are derived.Substituent derives from a 4-C alkane(butane) and point of attachmentis a tertiary C of the alkaneSubstituent derives from a 3-C alkane(propane) and point of attachmentis a secondary C of the alkane4-Isopropyloctane4-tert-Butyloctanecould also call this 4-sec-Propyloctane
33 Branched-chain alkyl groups …another point: for the purposes of capitalization (at the beginning of the name), tert- andsec-are not capitalized, but iso is4-Isopropyloctane4-tert-Butyloctane
34 Branched-chain alkyl groups Given a choice between unbranched substituents and branched substituents, use unbranched ones for naming3-Ethyl-2-methylhexane(not 2-Methyl-3-ethylhexane)also, not 3-Isopropylhexane
35 CycloalkanesCyclic alkanes (cycloalkanes) are alkane chains where the end carbons are linked together (need to kick off 2 H atoms from the formula of the corresponding straight-chain alkane to get the cycloalkane formula).The general formula for a cycloalkane is CnH2n
37 IUPAC nomenclature for substituted cycloalkanes If one substituent exists on a cycloalkane, no numbering is needed to denote its locationEthylcyclohexane
38 IUPAC nomenclature for substituted cycloalkanes If two substituents are present, the ring is numbered follows alphabetic priority.If more than two substituents are present, the ring numbering is assigned in a way that gives the lowest overall substituent numbers (order they are reported in is still alphabetic)1-Ethyl-2-methylcyclohexane2-Ethyl-1-methyl-4-propylcyclohexane(not 1-Ethyl-2-methyl-5-propylcyclohexaneor 1-Methyl-2-ethyl-4-propylcyclohexane)
39 Isomerism in cycloalkanes Constitutional isomers are possible for cycloalkanes having four or more carbons:These isomers differ in the way the carbon atomsare connected together (constitutional isomers)
40 Isomerism in cycloalkanes As before, as the number of carbons in the (cyclo)alkane grows, so do the number of constitutional isomers.
41 Isomerism in cycloalkanes Another kind of isomerism we haven’t yet encountered, called stereoisomerism, involves molecules that have the same molecular formula, same atom-to-atom connectivity, but differ in the 3-dimensional arrangement of the atoms in space.In cycoalkanes, there may exist the possibility of cis-, trans- isomers
42 Isomerism in cycloalkanes There are two distinct molecules. One can’t be converted into the other without breaking bonds first.Can have this form of isomerism for any cycloalkane that has more than one substituent.
43 Isomerism in cycloalkanes Substituents also don’t need to be on adjacent carbon atoms of the ring (but can’t be on the same carbon atom of the ring)
44 Sources of alkanes and cycloalkanes The crude petroleum that is obtained at drilling sites is a mixture of hydrocarbons (cyclic and acyclic) that is purified (refined) by taking advantage of the boiling point differences of the various components
45 Sources of alkanes and cycloalkanes Boiling point is observed to increase with increasing chain C-chain length (and ring size for cycloalkanes).About a 30o increase per additional C (–CH2- unit) in the chain.
46 Physical properties of alkanes and cycloalkanes Alkanes and cycloalkanes are water-insolubleAlkanes and cycloalkanes have densities that are less than that of water (0.6 – 0.8 g/mL, as compared to ~1 g/mL for H2O)Boiling points of continuous chain alkanes and cycloalkanes increase with an increase in carbon-chain length or ring sizeCycloalkanes have higher boiling points than corresponding alkanes because they are morerigidBranched chain alkanes have lower boiling points because they are more compact and haveless surface areas that straight-chain forms
47 Chemical properties of alkanes and cycloalkanes Alkanes and cycloalkanes have low chemical reactivities. The C-C bonds and C-H bonds are non-polar, which do not encourage reactions with other species, and the bond strengths are fairly high (strong bonds)Two reactions that they are susceptible to are combustion and halogenation
48 Chemical properties of alkanes and cycloalkanes In a combustion reaction, alkanes and cycloalkanes are reacted with O2 to form CO2 in an oxygen-rich environments (or CO or other C-products in less O2-rich environments).Some examples of alkane combustion reactions:CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O + heat2C6H O2 12CO2 + 14H2O + heat
49 Chemical properties of alkanes and cycloalkanes Halogenation reactions involve halogen atoms (group 7: F, Cl, Br, I). These reactions involve the substitution of a hydrogen atom of an alkane with a halogen:In general, the reaction goes like this:
50 Chemical properties of alkanes and cycloalkanes In a substitution reaction, an atom or group of atoms is replaced by another atom (or group of atoms) in a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon derivative.On the surface, they are like the replacement reactions we’ve already studied
51 Chemical properties of alkanes and cycloalkanes In situations where more than one type of product can result, a mixture of products is usually obtained.In many cases, more than one H-atom can be substituted:
52 Nomenclature and properties of halogenated alkanes Halogenated alkanes (or haloalkanes) are hydrocarbons (or their derivates) that possess at least one halogen atomsNaming rulesHalogens are treated just like other (alkyl) substituents when numbering and alphabetic naming are consideredSubstituents are called fluoro-, chloro, bromo-, and iodo- for the purposes of assigning names
53 Nomenclature and properties of halogenated alkanes In terms of chemical reactivity, halogenated alkanes are more reactive than alkanes and cycloalkane analogues, because the C-X bond (X = halogen) makes the bond polar and thus susceptible to reactions that require initial dipole-dipole interactions.Some halogenated alkanes have densities greater than that of water.Chloroalkanes with 2 or more Cl-atomsBromoalkanesIodoalkanes