Presentation on theme: "Membrane Networks in Natural Gas Separation Nina Wright, Ernest West, Debora Faria and Miguel Bagajewicz."— Presentation transcript:
Membrane Networks in Natural Gas Separation Nina Wright, Ernest West, Debora Faria and Miguel Bagajewicz
Purpose The purpose of this presentation is to show the importance of membranes in natural gas purification and their potential to be highly cost effective.
Topics Modern Natural Gas Processes Membranes Membrane Networks Superstructures Superstructure Model Modeling Results Questions
Natural Gas Processing System-Today Major Components of Natural Gas Processing today include absortion, adsorption, molecular sieves and cryogenic processes Absorption is used in: – Glycol Dehydration – Amine Treating Cryogenics is used in: – NGL recovery
Natural Gas with Membrane Separation Membranes could be used for: Wellhead dehydration Nitrogen Rejection Acid Gas Removal Dehydrator NGL fractionation Molecular sieves
Glycol Dehydration Triethylene glycol liquid absorbs water vapor from natural gas Glycol water solution is then heated to remove water Glycol solution is then reused for further dehydration use Removing water levels to below 5lbs/MMscf The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimated that more than 38,000 glycol dehydration units are operating in the U.S., collectively emitting about 18.6 billion cubic feet of CH 4 per year into the atmosphere
Sulfur Removal-Sweetening Sour gas - H 2 S content exceeds 5.7 milligrams per cubic meter of natural gas Sour gas is passed through contact tower containing amine solution Amine solution absorbs H 2 S Amine is recycled for further absorption Currently Amine treating is used in 95% of U.S. gas sweetening operations
Methane Losses from Acid Gas Removal There are 291 acid gas removal (AGR) units in gas processing plants Emit 646 MMcf annually 6 McF/day emitted by average AGR unit Most AGR units use diethanol amine (DEA) or Selexol process
Cryogenic Method for NGL removal Expansion turbine is used to drop the temperature of the natural gas Ethane and lighter hydrocarbons condense, methane remains in gaseous form Allows for 90%-95% recovery of ethane from the original gas stream In cryogenic processing, almost the entire volume of natural gas must be refrigerated, usually compressed, and then heated again. Accordingly, cryogenic processing is expensive to install and operate. Cryogenic technology is believed only capable of cost effectively purifying reserves, which exceed 50,000,000 standard cubic feet of gas per day.
Membranes use in Industry Today
Largest membrane based natural gas plant Natural Gas Processing Plant Qadirpur, Pakistan In 1999: in the world (Dortmundt, UOP, 1999). Design: 265 MMSCFD natural gas at 59 bar. CO 2 content is reduced from 6.5 % to less than 2 % using a cellulose acetate membrane. Also designed for gas dehydration. Plant processes all available gas. Plans for expansion to 400 MMSCFD.
Natural Gas Processing with Membranes Advantages – Less Environmental Impact – Less Maintenance Cost – Less Workspace Area – Ability to treat gas at wellhead Disadvantages – Reduced flux capacity – High capitol cost – Thermal instability – More research is needed for widespread industrial sized usage
What are membranes? Why should we use them?
Membrane Definition A membrane-a physical barrier from semi- permeable material that allows some component to pass through while others are held back. Usually, the driving force is pressure difference FeedRetentate Permeate Membrane module
Permeability of a Non-Porous Membrane The rate of gas permeation through a membrane is determined permeability. Permeability = solubility (k) x diffusivity (D) This comes from the fact that the gas needs to dissolve first in the matrix and then diffuse. Solubility indicates how much gas can be taken up by the membrane and diffusivity measures of the mobility of the molecules in the membrane
Membrane-Diffusion Mass transport through membranes described by Fick’s Law is the diffusivity of the solute in the membrane accounts for the solubility of the solute is the permeability,
Membrane Characteristics Selectivity Ideal Membranes incorporate high permeability with high selectivity This is accomplished usually with a highly selective membrane and making it as thin as possible to increase the permeability
Membrane Modules Membrane modules divided into Flat sheets and Tubular form Two membranes commonly used are spiral bound and hollow tube Spiral bound are an example of Flat sheet modules- essentially a flat sheet module rolled into a spiral form Spiral shape accommodates more surface area then a regular flat sheet Insert caption
Hollow Fiber Membranes Tubular membranes are divided into – Tubular >5mm – Capillary 0.5 > 5mm – Hollow fiber < 0.5 mm Low operation cost More Area per unit vs. Spiral wound Susceptible to fouling WINNER!! Cross Section of Hollow Fiber
Cellulose Acetate Cellulose acetate membrane-most commonly used in gas separation industry (especially CO 2 removal) – Drawbacks-sensitivity to water and plasticizing gases – Limited temperature and pressure resistance – Advantages-increased selectivity towards CO 2 over methane (CO 2 with a selectivity of 10-20)
New membrane technology Recently, (Oct. 2007) information published about “thermally rearranged” plastic membrane from University of Texas shows great promise: – Membrane pores modeled on ion channels in cells – Selectivity 4 times higher than Cellulose Acetate – CO 2 100 times more permeable – Highly thermally stable, can operate over 600°F. – 500 times less space taken up by process compared to current conventional CO 2 removal.
Membrane Mathematical Models
Hollow Fiber Modeling Assumptions: Uniform properties at each element Ideal gas behavior Steady-state isothermal operation Constant ambient pressure at the shell side Constant permeabilities (independent of composition) Negligible axial diffusion and pressure drop Negligible deformation of the fibers under pressure
Hollow Fiber Membrane Model Molar Component Material Balance – Tube side Shell side
Hollow Fiber Membrane Model Active Area of membrane element is the number of membrane tubes is the logarithmic mean diameter is the rate of transport of pure component per unit area of the membrane is the permeability of component j is the thickness of the membrane
Hollow Fiber Model Mole fractions (source on nonlinearities) – Tube side mole fraction for component j – Shell side mole fraction for component j
Modeling of Membrane Networks using Superstructures
Superstructure (a) (b) (c) (d) A superstructure is a flowsheet that contains all possible flowsheets simultaneously. Optimization determines the oprtimal configuration Mathematical programming is needed.
Membrane network design (Qi, Henson, 2000) Model Spiral-Wound module Multi-component gas mixtures MINLP Case study: CO 2 and H 2 S separation from natural gas. Simultaneous optimization of flow in terms of total annual process costs. Ref: Qi., R., Henson, M.A., 1998 Generalized Superstructure used
Membrane network design (Kookos, 2002) Ref: Kookos, I.K, 2002 Model Hollow-fibre membrane system Multi-component gas mixtures Limit study to two membranes network NLP Case study: O 2 and N 2 separation from air Find the optimal membrane permeability, selectivity and the optimum structure. Configuration and membrane properties are optimized together.
Our Mathematical Model Tube side Shell side K K+1 K+2 FeedRetentate Permeate
Model Equations in GAMS Interface
GAMS Solution Feasible One Membrane Model:
Membrane Optimization Length(m)50 CO 2 Material Balance Tube (Mol/s)0.07 CH 4 Material Balance Tube (Mol/s)6.73 CO 2 Material Balance Shell (Mol/s)1.95 CH 4 Material Balance Shell (Mol/s)0.15 Area(m 2 )2.09 Mole fraction CO2 (tube side)0.01 Mole fraction CH4 (tube side)0.99 Mole fraction CO2 (shell side)0.93 Mole fraction CH4 (shell side)0.07 Feasibility8 One Membrane Optimization while Minimizing Area, and Flow of CO 2 Tube side The Feasibility of the Membrane is discovered to be an eight. Eight is considered feasible
Complex Membrane Model Two membranes Four components Reasonable Values for Objective Function Discretization of Continuous Model Addition of Non-Linear Solver
Objective Function Capital Costs – $1000 per kWh per compressor – $200 per m 2 of membrane area for housing – Stainless Steel compressors – Working capital = 10% of FCI – 27% of TCI paid each year
Objective Function Operating Costs – Power costs = fuel cost*working days per year*compressor power / heat content of fuel / efficiency – $30/yr/m 2 cost of membrane replacement – Labor cost is assumed to be 5% of FCI/year – Product losses = fuel cost * working days per year * rate of loss of product
Additional Information Efficiency of compressors is 70% Stainless steel compressors Feed available at 3.5MPa Permeate pressure at.105MPa (~1bar) 10mol/s total feed 19% CO 2, 73% CH 4, 7%C 2 +, 1%H 2 S Membrane Area available in 40m 2 increments Operates 300 days/year
Mathematical Model Model uses a combination of mixed integer linear programming (MILP) and mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP). The MILP solves a initial linear problem to obtain initial guesses and provides a lower bound The MINLP then solves the non-linear problem to obtain a feasible solution
Difficulty in Finding Optimum Model is highly non-linear, so obtaining solutions is difficult Most simple model involves no recycle, model preferentially chooses parallel configuration MILP solution generates a lower bound that is too low and does not provide good enough initial guesses on its own When forcing the model to recycle, much lower objective function occurs
Increasing Maxcycles and Including Infeasder Added infeasder option and increased maxcycles from 20 to 100. Infeasder unable to be used because there were too many non-linear sub-problems in the model Increasing maxcycles occasionally causes the model to obtain a feasible solution if model cannot converge with 20 cycles Does not improve model enough
Addition of Loop Function Model cannot obtain optimum solution without initial guesses or bounds Loop generates initial guess for recycle flows and feed flows Successfully is able to obtain much lower minimums than original model run on high max cycles
-Two stage separation process -2% CO 2 composition in final retentate -Spiral wound membranes vs. hollow fiber membranes -Four component system Membrane System Design from Qi, and Henson
Two Membrane Network Partial Recycle of the Permeate of the Second Membrane Fraction of the Retentate from Membrane 1 to Membrane 2 Comparable compressor results Comparable Cost of Processing
Two Membrane Network P=5MPa Total Area = 80m 2 Cost of treating = $8.14/km 3 P (tube side) =5 Mpa Complete Recycle of Permeate of Membrane 1
Conclusions Successfully modeled two component, counter current flow membrane Several computational problems were highlighted Parallel configurations Less Total Membrane Area Two Membrane Networks modeled from Superstructure
References Qi., R., Henson, M.A., ‘Optimization-based design of spiral-wound membranes systems for CO2/CH4 separations’, Separation and Purification Technology, 13, 209-225, 1998 Qi., R., Henson, M.A., ‘Membrane system design for multicomponent gas mixtures via mixed-integer nonlinear programming’, Computers and Chemical Engineering, 24, 2719-2737, 2000 Kookos, I.K., ‘A targeting approach to the synthesis of membrane network for gas separations’, j. Membrane Science, 208, 193- 202, 2002 Mark C. Porter, "Handbook of Industrial Membrane Technology", Westwood, New Jersey, Noyes Publications, 1990. Seader, J. D., and Henley, E. J. "Separation Process Principles". New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1998. Natural Gas Supply Association, http://www.naturalgas.org/index.asp John A. Howell, The Watt Committee on Energy, "The Membrane Alternative, London, Elsevier Science, 1990. Polymeric Gas Separation Membranes by Donald R. Paul, Yuri P. Yampolskii, 1996.