4Welcome! Introductions Name, Position – Job Title Tell us about yourselfWhat do you know about Job Hazard Analysis (JHA’s) ?Welcome to the Basic Job Hazard Analysis (JHA) Workshop This workshop is designed to include you as much as possible in the learning experience. It targets the workers, supervisors, and managers responsible for job safety performance, and introduces a new approach which brings the JHA to the job site floor as a valuable tool that will be integrated into daily operations to improve productivity, quality, profitability and safety.The more you contribute, the more you will get out of this training, so please don’t hold back. . . participate and have fun!
5GoalsGiven the information and exercises in this workshop, you will be able to:Explain to others why JHA’s are importantRecognize how the JHA can be a valuable planning, production, profit and safety tool.Know the five-step process and complete a JHABriefly introduce and discuss the goals for the workshop.Use this opportunity to discuss the benefits of JHA’s and the individuals responsibilities.Typically we will not be expecting the individual to perform a formal JHA for their daily job tasks in the field. Our goal is to help the individual to develop a structured mental process for analyzing their daily tasks. Using the 5 step JHA process to analyze their work activities will help them identify the tools, materials and equipment they will need, develop work methods and procedures for accomplishing the task, identify existing and potential hazards, assessing the probability and risk and perhaps most importantly identifying methods to eliminate or protect against any hazards.
6Form Teams Let’s get to work! Elect a team leader Select a spokespersonEveryone is a recorderFrom the attendees into groups of at least three but not more than five participants.Have the teams elect a team leader and select a spokes person. Stress that these positions do not automatically go to the most senior employee. Ensure that team leadership opportunities are given to all employees.Everyone is a recorder and is encouraged to take notes during team activities.To develop ownership and participation, encourage the participants to name their teams. Team Names must be socially acceptable and politically correct.Let’s get to work!
7JHA Key Terms What’s a Job? What’s a Hazard? What’s an exposure? What is Analysis?Once teams have been formed, some basic definitions need to be addressed:What is a Job? Any activity (mental or physical or both) that has been assigned to an employee as a responsibility and carries with it both positive and/or negative consequences based on the performance of that job.What is a Hazard? A unsafe condition or practice that could cause injury, illness, or property damage and is preventable.What is an “exposure”? When an employee enters a “danger zone” by virtue of their proximity to the hazard.What is Analysis? The breaking down of a job into its component steps and then evaluating of each step, looking for hazards. Each hazard is then corrected or a method of worker protection (safe practice or PPE) is identified and made a standard of operation.
8ActivityWorkers in their first year with their employer account for more than 50% of disabling claims.Why?( list three possible explanations )Workers in their first year with their employer account for more than 50% of the accepted disabling claims.Why? (list three possible explanations)Allow 5 to 10 minutes for the teams to brainstorm this question and prepare at least three answers. After time is up have each group report their answers to the class.Compare and contrast the teams answers and use their observations to generate discussion and to check for understanding.Answer should at least include these answers:Lack of knowledge * Lack of physical ability * Cultural perception of what is acceptable behavior and what is not * Prior training that included unsafe practices
9JSA PurposeEffective JHA’s help the employer recognize and control hazards and exposures in the workplace.How might the employee’s perception of a “hazard” differ from that of the employer or supervisor?How does the employee’s perception of a “hazard” possibly differ from that of the supervisor or employer?The employee sees a hazard and wants the supervisor and/or employer to address it right away because the employee may feel threatened or at risk.The supervisor or employer may desire to address the hazard quickly but is often slowed down by the process.Answers to critical questions must be identified. Questions like - is it a real problem - how big a problem is it - what are the options - what is the best way to correct it - who is going to correct it - how long will it take - how much will it cost - is additional training needed .
10ActivityWhy is a JHA more effective than walk-around inspections in reducing accidents in the workplace?Why is JHA more effective than walk-around inspections?When used as hazard recognition, awareness, and training aids, JHAs help to set performance standards, assist in standardization of the operations based on acceptable safe practices and PPE, and provides a form of documentation regarding the employee’s knowledge of the job requirements.
11ProbabilityProbability is defined as: the chance that a given event will occur.Explain probabilityCompare and contrast probability to luck.Instructor could use examples such as the lottery or slot machines to develop an understanding.For example, with slot machines the higher the coin amount (nickels, quarters, dollars, etc.. ) the more coins (1,2 or 3) played at one time the higher the probability of winning a jack pot.Accidents are similar. The greater the hazard or chances taken, and the more often they are taken the greater the probability of an accident. This time the prize will be pain and suffering, the loss of a limb or body part or perhaps the biggest jackpot “Death”Just as more people lose than win at the casinos, Risk takers on the job will also eventually lose. The odds are against short cuts, poor work habits, and unsafe practices
12ProbabilityWe can determine the safety probability based on the following:The number of employees exposed;The frequency and duration of exposure;The proximity of employees to the danger zone;This discussion is intended to help the student develop an evaluation tool that is objective and based on the terminology used by OSHA. and Safety Professionals.JHAs help us to understand the “probability” of there being an accident and what the “severity” of the injury or illness might be if one does take place.Use the slides to expand the discussion and to develop an understanding of probability and risk
13ProbabilityWe can determine the safety probability based on the following:Factors which require work under stress;Lack of proper training and supervision or improper workplace design; orOther factors which may significantly influence the degree of probability of an accident occurring.
14Probability Rating The probability rating is: Low - If the factors considered indicate it would be unlikely that an accident could occur;Medium - If the factors considered indicate it would be likely that an accident could occur; orHigh - If the factors considered indicate it would be very likely that an accident could occur.
15SeverityThe degree of injury or illness which is reasonably predictable.
16Severity The severity is based on the following schedule: Other Than Serious - Conditions that could cause injury or illness to employees but would not include serious physical harm. (first aid for example)Serious Physical Harm - (example: all recordable injuries and illnesses)Death
17Decision Making Matrix 4Probability and Severity factors can be evaluated based on a simple “decision making matrix” . A matrix lets you chart a value for two factors such as probability and severity and rate the combined relationship.For example, let’s assume that you have found a hazardous condition and 25 employees are exposed to it six times each day. You may feel that the probability is “medium” based on these factors. Now you can chart the probability on a matrix . Note that a line has been drawn through the medium row.Now, using the same hazard, let’s assume that the “Severity” factor is determined to be “Serious Physical Harm” because the seriousness will most likely result in a recordable injury with “Serious Physical Harm” column with a line through it. Note that the two lines intersect at the “4”. The combined rating is “4”.
18Activity Picking Apples: There are 20 workers picking apples. The orchard is made up of 400 trees.The workers are paid based on how much each one of them picks.Well-maintained equipment is provided but there is no training. The owner or the foreman will be in the general area most of the time.Over the years the “decision making matrix” has become a staple for objectively evaluating two criteria at the same time resulting in a combined rating for that criteria. In this exercise the student is given the opportunity to put this tool to use. The assignment and the explanation are straight forward.When more than one job has been identified as needing a JHA, and if the decision regarding which one should be conducted first (usually in committee) can not be determined, time is often wasted debating which one to start with. These debates are usually centered on opinion and/or personal experience and can be very heated. The net result is a waste of valuable time in the debate. The use of the decision making matrix for each hazard, by each member, and then comparing the results will reduce some of the debate and thus reduce the time it takes to decide “where to start”.
19ActivityHave each team evaluate the information and working as a team determine the probability and severity number.Have the teams report their answers to the class,Compare and contrast the given answers and generate a discussion between the teams to explain differences between the teams answers.
20JHA Step 1 Step One - Watch the work being done What are some effective methods to watch the work being done?This slide begins the explanation of how to conduct or develop a JHA. The purpose is to bring the students to a common understanding of how to begin.The “fix-the-system” culture is one that makes every effort to address the hazards in the workplace by first identifying the hazardous condition or practice, analyzing the hazard to determine the root cause and then eliminate those hazards by correcting the deficiencies in the system. (could include supervisor training, improved accountability system, establishment of standards of performance at all levels, to name a few.)What are some effective methods to watch the work being done?Video, observation, photos, sketches.
21JHA Step 1 Step One - Watch the work being done Why is it important to involve the employee?Why is it important to involve the employee? A couple of things here: First it can help the observer better understand the process that is taking place. Second, the more involved the employees are in the development stage, the better the chances of buy-in on their part.Why is a “fix-the-system” culture so important to the JHA process? The JHA process has more than one goal.1. It provides an organized approach for the evaluation of a process.2. Once the hazards and corrective actions are identified, the JHA becomes a vehicle by which the employer can mesh the desired “Safe Behavior” into the normal operating procedure: The only way to do the job is to do it safely.3. Once “root causes” have been identified in the JHA development process, these can be addressed thus “fixing” the system that brought the hazardous condition or unsafe practice into the workplace.
22JHA Step 2 Step Two - Break the job down into steps Step 1 Step 2 The second step is to break the job down into steps. The introduction to the “breaking down” process is covered through a brief discussion of the “Job Hazard Analysis Worksheet” and how it helps in the organization of the process. Some key points to be covered are as follows:* The top of the first page of the JHA is a tracking device for easy location of the job and documentation of the analysis.* Once a JHA Number has been assigned, that number belongs to that job. (example: JHA 1001)* Page ___ of ____ is self explanatory. (Page 1 of 2, Page 2 of 2 etc.)* Job Description: The every day language version that everyone can understand: (example: Changing a tire, Mixing Concrete, Packing cartons, Trimming defects from a product.)* A good job is broken down into steps. If the JHA ends up with more than 15 steps then it is too complex. If this is the case, the JHA must be broken down into phases (phase 1 and phase 2 etc….) The suggested JHA worksheet allows for up to 15 steps (five on each of 3 pages)* Each step of the job is identified and written in on the worksheet. All of the steps should be identified before moving on to the Hazards.* Each step is now broken down to identify the hazard. The hazards are listed under each step.Once all of the hazards and operational concerns have been identified for all of the steps, then the “Control Measures” for each hazard are recorded. These control measures become the operational expectation.Step 4
23JHA Step 3 Step Three - Describe the hazards in each step of the task. One of the primary purposes of the JHA is to make the job safer.The information gathered in this step will be valuable in helping to eliminate and/or reduce hazards associated with the job, and improve the system weaknesses that produced them.Describe the hazards in each step of the task. Once the steps have been identified, then the hazards are to be identified and described.Use the list of hazards and accident types shown on slides 23 through 31 to discuss types of hazards and accidents.Ensure that each attendee has a list of the hazards and accident types. They will need these to complete a JHA work activity later in the workshopExample: Changing A TireStep 1: Make sure the car is parked off the road and clear of trafficHazard(s) Control Measure(s) RequiredMechanical (struck by)
24Identifying types of hazards Acceleration: When we speed up or slow down too quicklyToxic: Toxic to skin and internal organs.Radiation: Non-ionizing - burns, Ionizing - destroys tissue.
25Identifying types of hazards Ergonomics: Eight risk factors1. High Frequency;2. High Duration;3. High Force;4. Posture;5. Point of Operation;6. Mechanical Pressure;7. Vibration;8. Environmental Exposure.
26Identifying types of hazards Pressure: Increased pressure in hydraulic and pneumatic systems.Mechanical: Pinch points, sharp points and edges, weight, rotating parts, stability, ejected parts and materials, impact.Flammability/Fire: In order for combustion to take place, the fuel and oxidizer must be present in gaseous form.
27Identifying types of hazards Biological: Primarily airborne and blood borne viruses.Violence In The Workplace: Any violent act that occurs in the workplace and creates a hostile work environment that affects employees’ physical or psychological well-being.
28Identifying types of hazards Explosives: Explosions result in large amounts of gas, heat, noise, light and over-pressure.Electrical Contact: Inadequate insulation, broken electrical lines or equipment, lightning strike, static discharge etc.Chemical Reactions: Chemical reactions can be violent, can cause explosions, dispersion of materials and emission of heat.
29Accident Types Struck-by: Struck-against: Contact-by: A person is forcefully struck by an object. The force of contact is provided by the object.Struck-against:A person forcefully strikes an object. The person provides the force or energy.Contact-by:Contact by a substance or material that, by its very nature, is harmful and causes injury.
30Accident Types Contact-with: Caught-on: Caught-in: A person comes in contact with a harmful substance or material. The person initiates the contact.Caught-on:A person or part of his/her clothing or equipment is caught on an object that is either moving or stationary. This may cause the person to lose his/her balance and fall, be pulled into a machine, or suffer some other harm.Caught-in:A person or part of him/her is trapped, or otherwise caught in an opening or enclosure.
31Accident Types Caught-between: Fall-to-surface: Fall-to-below: A person is crushed, pinched or otherwise caught between a moving and a stationary object, or between two moving objects.Fall-to-surface:A person slips or trips and falls to the surface he/she is standing or walking on.Fall-to-below:A person slips or trips and falls to a level below the one he/she was walking or standing on.
32Accident Types Over-exertion: Bodily reaction: Over-exposure: A person over-extends or strains himself/herself while performing work.Bodily reaction:Caused solely from stress imposed by free movement of the body or assumption of a strained or unnatural body position. A leading source of injury.Over-exposure:Over a period of time, a person is exposed to harmful energy (noise, heat), lack of energy (cold), or substances (toxic chemicals/atmospheres).
33JHA Step 4 Step Four – Control Measures. It is now time to identify the desired control measures for each hazard.The “Control Measures” are recorded on the worksheet for each hazard that is identified. These controls may include procedures, practices, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), etc. Refer to the Hierarchy of Controls at the right of the page.Example: Changing A TireStep 1: Make sure the car is parked off the road and clear of trafficHazard(s) Control Measure(s) RequiredMechanical (struck by) Administrative: Check side and rear- view mirrors
34The Hierarchy of Controls Engineering controls.Management controls.Personal Protective Equipment (PPE).
35Engineering ControlsConsist of substitution, isolation, ventilation, and equipment modification.These controls focus on the source of the hazard, unlike other types of controls that generally focus on the employee exposed to the hazard.The basic concept behind engineering controls is that, to the extent feasible, the work environment and the job itself should be designed to eliminate hazards or reduce exposure to hazards
36Management ControlsManagement controls may result in a reduction of exposure through such methods as changing work habits, improving sanitation and hygiene practices, or making other changes in the way the employee performs the job.
37Personal Protective Equipment When exposure to hazards cannot be engineered completely out of normal operations or maintenance work, and when safe work practices and administrative controls cannot provide sufficient additional protection from exposure, personal protective clothing and/or equipment may be required.
38JHA Step 5 Step Five - Safe Operating Procedure The “Safe Operating Procedure” is the last page of the JHA. It is a narrative or written summary of the JHA worksheets. Note that there are three sections:The “Safe Operating Procedure” is a narrative or written summary of the JHA worksheets.
39? Any Questions Answer any questions Ask questions to check for understanding