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Separating Mixtures ClassAct SRS enabled. In this presentation you will: Distinguish between elements and compounds. Distinguish between pure substances.

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Presentation on theme: "Separating Mixtures ClassAct SRS enabled. In this presentation you will: Distinguish between elements and compounds. Distinguish between pure substances."— Presentation transcript:

1 Separating Mixtures ClassAct SRS enabled. In this presentation you will: Distinguish between elements and compounds. Distinguish between pure substances and mixtures.

2 Separating Mixtures It can be simply describe as the “substance” that all things are made of. By definition, matter is everything that has a mass and inertia, and occupies a place in space. The way trees, water, the air we breathe, etc. behave, depends on how this substance is formed and its properties. Next >

3 Separating Mixtures Particles are apart from each other, moving fast and randomly. Particles are in touch with each other, but they move freely. Particles are in touch with each other and they form a pattern. The three states of matter are solid, liquid and gas. The states have both, visible and invisible properties. States of Matter Gases Shape and volume are undefined. Solids Shape and volume are defined. Liquids Shape is undefined, but volume is defined. Next >

4 Separating Mixtures 1 Which one of the following correctly describes a solid? Question A) Defined shape and fixed volume. B) Undefined shape and variable volume. C) Undefined shape and defined volume. D) Defined shape and undefined volume.

5 Separating Mixtures 2 In which state of the matter are particles moving and in touch with each other? Question A) Solid state. B) Liquid state. C) Gaseous state. D) All the states.

6 Separating Mixtures Every sample of matter is classified as a pure substance or as a mixture. Pure Substances A pure substance is a type of matter in which all samples have the same composition and the same properties. Pure substances are divided in: elements and compounds. Matter Elements Compounds Pure Substances Mixtures Next >

7 Separating Mixtures An element is a substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances. For example, carbon. Elements and Atoms The smallest particle that preserves the properties of the element is the atom. There is one different type of atom for each element. Jar containing carbon Carbon atom Next >

8 Separating Mixtures There are over 100 of these elements. Elements and Atoms Most of them can be found naturally on Earth. Others are produced synthetically by nuclear reactions. Elements are indicated by symbols, often based on their Latin names. The convention is: The first letter of the symbol is always capitalized. The second and third letters, if any, are never capitalized. Next >

9 Separating Mixtures Used in:SymbolName SaltCoins Jewelry Fire / CombustionRockets Some elements include: Elements and Atoms HHydrogen OOxygen AuGold AgSilver NaSodium Next >

10 Separating Mixtures 3 Which one of the following can not be a symbol of an element? Question A) Mn B) H C) aC D) Na

11 Separating Mixtures A compound is a substance that is composed of two or more elements chemically held together in fixed proportions. In this example we will look at water. Compounds and Molecules In a compound, atoms are chemically combined forming molecules. = Oxygen atom = Hydrogen atom = Molecule of Water Compound of Water Next >

12 Separating Mixtures Common salt (sodium chloride) NaC l Water H2OH2O Each compound has a chemical formula indicating the proportions each element is combined. Compounds and Molecules One sodium atom and one chloride atom. Two hydrogen atoms combined with one oxygen atom. One nitrogen atom combined with three hydrogen atoms. Ammonia NH 3 Next >

13 Separating Mixtures The properties of the compounds are different to those of the individual elements. Compounds and Molecules For example, both Oxygen and Hydrogen are gases. But combined, they form water, which is a liquid. H2OH2O Next >

14 Separating Mixtures 4 Which one of the following is not a compound? Question A) Sodium Chloride: NaCl B) Magnesium: Mg C) Ammonia: NH 3 D) Water: H 2 O

15 Separating Mixtures A mixture is the combination of two or more pure substances that do not chemically combine to form compounds. Mixtures Mixtures can be divided into homogeneous and heterogeneous. Heterogeneous Homogeneous Pure Substances Matter Elements Compounds Mixtures Next >

16 Separating Mixtures Heterogeneous mixtures are those that are not evenly distributed, the composition of one zone (or phase) is different to the composition of the other zone (or phase). Mixtures The particles in a heterogeneous mixture are coarse enough to be distinguished by visual observation. Sand and Pebbles Blood Next >

17 Separating Mixtures Homogeneous mixtures are those that are evenly distributed. Mixtures The components of a homogeneous mixture are combined together and are unable to be distinguished from one another by visual observation. Next >

18 Separating Mixtures The components of a mixture usually can be separated by physical means. Separating Mixtures Basic strategies to separate mixtures: Transfer: add a new phase that collects some components from the mixture, but not others. Conversion: convert components of the mixture into other forms that are easy to isolate. For example to dry clothes, we convert the water into steam. Next >

19 Separating Mixtures 5 Which one of the following is a mixture? Question A) water B) orange juice C) vinegar D) salt

20 Separating Mixtures 6 When using a paper filter to separate sand from water, we are applying a transfer strategy for separating mixtures. Is this true or false? Answer True or False. Question

21 Separating Mixtures 7 When evaporating the water of wet clothes to obtain dry clothes, we are applying a transfer strategy for separating mixtures. Is this true or false? Answer True or False. Question

22 Separating Mixtures Show knowledge and understanding of the properties of each of the three states of matter. Distinguish between elements and compounds. After completing this presentation you should be able to : Summary Distinguish between pure substances and mixtures. End >


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