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A solution is a uniform mixture of a gas, liquid, or solid.A solution is a uniform mixture of a gas, liquid, or solid. A solvent is the component of a.

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Presentation on theme: "A solution is a uniform mixture of a gas, liquid, or solid.A solution is a uniform mixture of a gas, liquid, or solid. A solvent is the component of a."— Presentation transcript:

1 A solution is a uniform mixture of a gas, liquid, or solid.A solution is a uniform mixture of a gas, liquid, or solid. A solvent is the component of a solution that is present in a greatest quantity. It is the 1 component that determines whether a solution is a solid, liquid, or gas.A solvent is the component of a solution that is present in a greatest quantity. It is the 1 component that determines whether a solution is a solid, liquid, or gas. Conversely, a solute is a component of a solution that is present in a smaller quantity than the solvent. Or a solute is a reagent that undergoes a change of state when it forms a solution.Conversely, a solute is a component of a solution that is present in a smaller quantity than the solvent. Or a solute is a reagent that undergoes a change of state when it forms a solution. For example, a spoonful of sugar dissolves in a cup of boiling water to make a solution.For example, a spoonful of sugar dissolves in a cup of boiling water to make a solution. What is the solvent?What is the solvent? What is the solute?What is the solute? CH 103: CONVERSION OF A CARBONATE TO A CHLORIDE STOICHIOMETRYWater Sugar

2 The phase labels “s”, “l”, and “g” are used to identify the solid, liquid, and gaseous states of matter, respectively.The phase labels “s”, “l”, and “g” are used to identify the solid, liquid, and gaseous states of matter, respectively. In addition, “aq” is used to identify a solute in the aqueous phase; that is, a solute dissolved in water.In addition, “aq” is used to identify a solute in the aqueous phase; that is, a solute dissolved in water. H 2 O(s) is solid water or ice.H 2 O(s) is solid water or ice. H 2 O(l) is liquid water.H 2 O(l) is liquid water. H 2 O(g) is gaseous water or steam.H 2 O(g) is gaseous water or steam. K + (aq) is potassium ion dissolved in water.K + (aq) is potassium ion dissolved in water.STOICHIOMETRY

3 To be valid, a chemical reaction must satisfy 3 conditions.To be valid, a chemical reaction must satisfy 3 conditions. First, it must be consistent with experimental facts.First, it must be consistent with experimental facts. Second, it must conserve mass.Second, it must conserve mass. Third, it must conserve electrical charge.Third, it must conserve electrical charge. 2Ag + (aq) + S 2- (aq) → Ag 2 S(s) Does an aqueous solution of colorless silver ions, Ag + (aq), combine with an aqueous solution of colorless sulfide ions, S 2- (aq), to form the black precipitate Ag 2 S(s)?Does an aqueous solution of colorless silver ions, Ag + (aq), combine with an aqueous solution of colorless sulfide ions, S 2- (aq), to form the black precipitate Ag 2 S(s)? Is mass conserved?Is mass conserved? Is electrical charge conserved?Is electrical charge conserved?STOICHIOMETRYYes. Yes. The reactants have 2 moles of Ag and 1 mole of S, and the products also have 2 moles of Ag and 1 mole of S. Yes. The reactants have 0 net charge, and the products also have 0 net charge.

4 In the Arrhenius theory an acid produces H + in aqueous solution and a base produces OH - in aqueous solution.In the Arrhenius theory an acid produces H + in aqueous solution and a base produces OH - in aqueous solution. The more general Brønsted-Lowry theory defines an acid as a H + donor and a base as a H + accepter.The more general Brønsted-Lowry theory defines an acid as a H + donor and a base as a H + accepter. A salt is the product from the reaction of an acid and a base.A salt is the product from the reaction of an acid and a base. HCl is an ____.HCl is an ____. NaOH is a ____.NaOH is a ____. NaCl is a ___.NaCl is a ___.STOICHIOMETRY acid. It produces or donates a H + in an aqueous solution. base. It produces a OH - an aqueous solution, which can accept a H + from an acid. salt. It can be produced from an acid and a base as follows: HCl(aq) + NaOH(s) → NaCl(s) + H 2 O(g)

5 The net reaction for today’s experiment isThe net reaction for today’s experiment is Na 2 CO 3 (s) + 2HCl(aq) → 2NaCl(s) + CO 2 (g) + H 2 O(g) One mole of solid sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ) reacts with 2 moles of aqueous hydrochloric acid (HCl) to make 2 moles of solid sodium chloride (NaCl), 1 mole of gaseous carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and 1 mole of gaseous water (H 2 O).One mole of solid sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ) reacts with 2 moles of aqueous hydrochloric acid (HCl) to make 2 moles of solid sodium chloride (NaCl), 1 mole of gaseous carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and 1 mole of gaseous water (H 2 O). Use this table to confirm that mass is conserved.Use this table to confirm that mass is conserved. TODAY’S EXPERIMENT Element Moles of Reactant Moles of Product NaCOHCl

6 Na 2 CO 3 (s) + 2HCl(aq) → 2NaCl(s) + CO 2 (g) + H 2 O(g) What is the theoretical (or maximum) yield of NaCl(s) if g of Na 2 CO 3 (s) reacts with excess HCl(aq)?What is the theoretical (or maximum) yield of NaCl(s) if g of Na 2 CO 3 (s) reacts with excess HCl(aq)? First, what does “excess HCl(aq)” mean?First, what does “excess HCl(aq)” mean? HCl(aq) is NOT the limiting reagent and the maximum yield of NaCl(s) depends on the initial amount of Na 2 CO 3 (s).HCl(aq) is NOT the limiting reagent and the maximum yield of NaCl(s) depends on the initial amount of Na 2 CO 3 (s). What is the percent yield if g of NaCl are actually produced?What is the percent yield if g of NaCl are actually produced? TODAY’S EXPERIMENT

7 Average deviation and standard deviation are measures of precision. That is, they are used to quantify the agreement between repeated measurements of the same sample.Average deviation and standard deviation are measures of precision. That is, they are used to quantify the agreement between repeated measurements of the same sample. AVERAGE DEVIATION AND STANDARD DEVIATION

8 Calculate the average and standard deviations for the following 3 measurements of the same sample.Calculate the average and standard deviations for the following 3 measurements of the same sample. AVERAGE DEVIATION AND STANDARD DEVIATION

9 Give at least 1 safety concern for the following procedures that will be used in today’s experiment.Give at least 1 safety concern for the following procedures that will be used in today’s experiment. Heating a crucible with a flame.Heating a crucible with a flame. Injury from a burn or causing a fire. Be careful. Do not wear loose clothing or long hair. A crucible can shatter when heating; wear your goggles at all times.Injury from a burn or causing a fire. Be careful. Do not wear loose clothing or long hair. A crucible can shatter when heating; wear your goggles at all times. Using Na 2 CO 3 (s) and concentrated HCl.Using Na 2 CO 3 (s) and concentrated HCl. These are irritants. Wear your goggles at all times. Immediately clean all spills. If you do get either of these in your eye, immediately flush with water.These are irritants. Wear your goggles at all times. Immediately clean all spills. If you do get either of these in your eye, immediately flush with water. Generating H 2 O(g) and HCl(g).Generating H 2 O(g) and HCl(g). Again, these are irritants. Wear your goggles at all times. Immediately clean all spills. If you do get either of these in your eye, immediately flush with water.Again, these are irritants. Wear your goggles at all times. Immediately clean all spills. If you do get either of these in your eye, immediately flush with water. Your laboratory manual has an extensive list of safety procedures. Read and understand this section. Ask your instructor if you ever have any questions about safety.Your laboratory manual has an extensive list of safety procedures. Read and understand this section. Ask your instructor if you ever have any questions about safety.SAFETY

10 Barnes, D.S., J.A. Chandler Chemistry Workbook and Laboratory Manual. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts.Barnes, D.S., J.A. Chandler Chemistry Workbook and Laboratory Manual. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts. Petrucci, R.H General Chemistry Principles and Modern Applications, 4th ed. New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing Company.Petrucci, R.H General Chemistry Principles and Modern Applications, 4th ed. New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing Company. Spencer, J.N., G.M. Bodner, L.H. Rickard Chemistry Structure and Dynamics, 3rd ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.Spencer, J.N., G.M. Bodner, L.H. Rickard Chemistry Structure and Dynamics, 3rd ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Structure Probe, Inc Standards for Microanalysis - Silver Sulfide - SPI Supplies.. Available: _sulfide.shtml [accessed 7 September 2006].Structure Probe, Inc Standards for Microanalysis - Silver Sulfide - SPI Supplies.. Available: _sulfide.shtml [accessed 7 September 2006]. _sulfide.shtml _sulfide.shtmlSOURCES


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