Presentation on theme: "Topic #23: Chemical Kinetics"— Presentation transcript:
1 Topic #23: Chemical Kinetics EQ: How do the factors that affect the rate of reaction slow down or speed up a chemical reaction?
2 Chemical Kinetics Studies the rate at which a chemical process occurs. Besides information about the speed at which reactions occur, kinetics also sheds light on the reaction mechanism (how the reaction occurs)2
3 Rate of Reaction Some reactions occur rapidly Inflation of an airbag Explosion of nitrogen triiodideSome reactions occur slowlyReaction of pigments in paintings with light & pollutantsTarnishing of silver/Iron rusting3
4 Rate of ReactionAn increase in concentration of one of the products per unit time or as the decrease in concentration of one of the reactants per unit time.ORHow fast reactants are being converted to products during a chemical reaction – either the rate of formation of a product of the rate of consumption of a reactant may be used (they are related to each other by dividing the corresponding coeffficient in the stoichiometric equation)Units of rate of reaction: moles per dm3 per secondWe will use mol dm-3 s-14
5 Rate of ReactionRates of reactions can be determined by monitoring the change in concentration of either reactants or products as a function of time. [A] vs t or [B] vs t5
6 Kinetic TheoryTiny particles in all forms of matter are in constant motion.The energy an object has because of motion is called kinetic energy.The particles in any collection of atoms or molecules at a given temperature have a wide range of kinetic energies, from very low to very high. Overall, there is an average kinetic energy.66
7 The Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution In a sample gas or liquid, the molecules are flying about and bumping into each other and the walls all the time.When they do this, no energy is lost from the system - they’re elastic collisions.So in a sample of gas or liquid at any given time, the energy that molecules have is going to be spread out, with some particles having more or less energy than others.If you were to draw a graph of how the energy was spread over different molecules, you’d get the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution!
9 This graph is important if you want to get those easy marks This graph is important if you want to get those easy marks. You have to remember that:the area under the curve = the total molecules in the sample, and doesn’t changethere are no molecules with no energyvery few molecules have high energies, butthere is no maximum energy for a molecule, andthe most probable energy value is where the curve is at its highest, as shown.
10 If you increase the temperature of the sample, the distribution changes as shown below. It becomes stretched out and has a lower peak, but the area under the curve remains the same.The reverse happens when you cool down a sample.
11 Activation Energy (Ea) Activation Energy: The minimum amount of energy required for reaction: to happen is called the activation energy, Ea.Just as a ball cannot get over a hill if it does not roll up the hill with enough energy, a reaction cannot occur unless the molecules possess sufficient energy to get over the activation energy barrier.
12 (a) Activation energy (Ea) of forward reaction Activation energy is the minimum amount of kinetic energy that must be given to the reactants before they will react.(a) Activation energy (Ea) of forwardreaction(b) Activation energy (Ea) of reverse(c) Heat of reaction (ΔH)What is the heat of reactionfor each of the graphs? Which isexothermic and which is endothermic?12
13 In a chemical reaction, bonds are broken and new bonds are formed. Molecules can only react if they collide with each other with enough energy. (Ea)13
14 Collision theory:Furthermore, molecules must collide with the correct orientation and with enough energy to cause bond to break and reform again.14
15 COLLISION THEORY: Know this!!! In order for a reaction to occur, reactants (atoms, ions, radicals or molecules) must collideMolecules must collide in the right orientation so that the reactive parts of each of the two particles come into contact with each otherReactants must collide with sufficient kinetic energy to bring about the reaction (at least the activation energy).Not all collisions result in a reaction.The likelihood of these happening determines the rate.
16 Changing the rate of reactions Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: ChemistryRates of ReactionAnything that increases the number of successful collisions between reactant particles will speed up a reaction.What factors affect the rate of reactions?increased temperatureincreased concentration of dissolved reactants, and increased pressure of gaseous reactantsincreased surface area of solid reactants.(decrease particle size)use of a suitable catalyst.16
17 Effect of temperature on rate Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: ChemistryRates of ReactionEffect of temperature on rateIncreasing the temperature will make the particles move faster, so there will be more collisions.At a higher temperature, many more particles will have the necessary activation energy. The ratio of successful collision to unsuccessful collisions will increase.Which one will contribute more towards increasing the rate of reaction?17
18 Temperature: greater T = more collisions with the required Ea Increasing the temperature increases the frequency of collisions but, more importantly, the proportion of molecules with E ≥ Ea increases
19 Effect of concentration on rate of reaction Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: ChemistryRates of ReactionThe higher the concentration of a dissolved reactant, the faster the rate of a reaction.Why does increased concentration increase the rate of reaction?At a higher concentration, there are more particles in the same amount of space. This means that the particles are more likely to collide and therefore more likely to react.The ratio of successful collisions to unsuccessful collisions will stay the same, but there will be more successful collisions.higher concentrationlower concentration19
20 Effect of pressure on rate of reaction Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: ChemistryRates of ReactionEffect of pressure on rate of reactionWhy does increasing the pressure of gaseous reactants increase the rate of reaction?As the pressure increases, the space in which the gas particles are moving becomes smaller.The gas particles become closer together, increasing the frequency of collisions. This means that the particles are more likely to react.lower pressurehigher pressure20
21 Concentration: higher conc = more particles in given volume = more collisions per unit of time
22 Effect of surface area on rate of reaction Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: ChemistryRates of ReactionEffect of surface area on rate of reactionAny reaction involving a solid can only take place at the surface of the solid.If the solid is split into several pieces, the surface area increases. What effect will this have on rate of reaction?low surface areahigh surface areaThis means that there is an increased area for the reactant particles to collide with.The smaller the pieces, the larger the surface area. This means more collisions and a greater chance of reaction.22
23 Particle size: greater surface area = greater # of collisions per unit of time
24 Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Rates of ReactionWhat are catalysts?Catalysts are substances that change the rate of a reaction without being used up in the reaction.Catalysts never produce more product – they just produce the same amount more quickly.reaction (time)energy (kJ)Ea without catalystDifferent catalysts work in different ways, but most provide an alternative path with lower activation energy (Ea).Ea with catalystTeacher notesSee the ‘Energy Transfer’ presentation for more information on activation energy.24
25 Catalysts: provide alternative mechanism w/ lower Ea = more collisions with sufficient Ea **You must not say “the number of collisions” only... You must say “number of collisions per unit time” or “frequency”
26 In order to increase reaction rates… FactorOptimal Condition to Increase Reaction RateReasonParticle SizeConcentrationTemperatureCatalyst
27 Increasing the temperature increases the reaction rate. Decreasing the particle size of solid reactants increases the reaction rate.Increasing the temperature increases the reaction rate.Only the surface particles of a solid react. Breaking the solid into smaller pieces increases the surface area so more particles available to react.At higher temperatures the particles move faster and have more energy. Faster movement means greater frequency of collisions, more energy means more collisions have the activation energy required for reacting.2727
28 More particles present means greater frequency of collisions. Increasing the concentration of the reactants increase the reaction rateIncreasing the pressure of a gaseous reaction increases the reaction rate.More particles present means greater frequency of collisions.Increasing pressure translates to increased concentration by either reducing the volume or increasing the number of particles. Higher concentration means greater frequency of collisions.2828