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Coulomb’s LawCoulomb’s Law  Addresses the force of attraction between the positive nucleus and negative electron  F = q e  q p q e = charge of electron.

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Presentation on theme: "Coulomb’s LawCoulomb’s Law  Addresses the force of attraction between the positive nucleus and negative electron  F = q e  q p q e = charge of electron."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Coulomb’s LawCoulomb’s Law  Addresses the force of attraction between the positive nucleus and negative electron  F = q e  q p q e = charge of electron r 2 q p = charge of nucleus  INVERSE relationship between attractive force and distance  Attractive force is DIRECTLY related to the charge on the electron and the charge in the nucleus

3 First Ionization Energy (IE)First Ionization Energy (IE)  If an electron is given enough energy (in the form of a photon) to overcome the effective nuclear charge holding the electron in the cloud, it can leave the atom completely.  Energy required to remove the outermost electron from an atom  Amount of energy needed to remove ONE electron from a neutral atom  Energy needed to remove electrons from ground state to gaseous state in an atom  Formation of positive ions ( cations )

4 Ionization Energy (cont.)Ionization Energy (cont.)  Formation of positive ions ( cations )  The larger the atom is, the easier its electrons are to remove.  Ionization energy and atomic radius are inversely proportional.

5 Ionization Energy TrendIonization Energy Trend Increases Decreases

6 ElementAtomic # IE (kJ/mol) Na Mg Al S Cl Ar K

7  1 st ionization energy  Energy required to remove 1 st electron from atom  Taken from highest energy level  Easiest to remove  Energy increases as more electrons are removed Ionization Energy (cont.)Ionization Energy (cont.)

8 Can we have 2 nd, 3 rd, 4 th, etc. Ionization Energies?  Energy needed to remove additional electrons from an atom  Energy increases as more electrons are removed.  Removing electrons from lower energy levels, close to nucleus

9 1 st IE2 nd IE3 rd IE4 th IE Na

10 Ionization EnergyIonization Energy

11 Example 1:Example 1: Place these elements in order of INCREASING 1 st ionization energy. 1)Mg, S, Si 2)As, N, P (p. 321 in text)

12 What does affinity mean?

13 Electron AffinityElectron Affinity  Creating negative ions ( anions)  Energy change with the addition of an electron to an atom  energy change that occurs when electrons added to gaseous atom  Energy is released when electrons are added, exothermic process (negative value)

14 Electron AffinityElectron Affinity  Electron tends to enter partially filled subshell or go to the next energy level  Does not follow predictable trend like atomic radii and ionization energy  An atom’s “desire/affinity” for more electrons, wants to get more electrons ! ! !  Metals—decrease electron affinity.  Nonmetals—increase electron affinity, more reactive  Stable atoms—full octet

15 Electron Affinity TrendElectron Affinity Trend Increases Decreases

16 Homework  Atomic Theory III worksheet #18-21  Read pp  p. 334 #57-58


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