Lecture -10- Presented by: Dr. Zeniab Osman Saeed
Pollution prevention (P2) is reducing or eliminating waste at the source by modifying production processes, promoting the use of non-toxic or less-toxic substances, implementing conservation techniques, and re-using materials rather than putting them into the waste stream
Pollution prevention is defined in the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 as: "The use of processes, practices, materials, products or energy that avoid or minimize the creation of pollutants and waste, and reduce overall risk to human health or the environment."
Energy conservation is the practice of decreasing the quantity of energy used. It may be achieved through efficient energy use, in which case energy use is decreased while achieving a similar outcome, or by reduced consumption of energy services. Energy conservation may result in increase of financial capital, environmental value, national security, personal security, and human comfort.
Individuals and organizations that are direct consumers of energy may want to conserve energy in order to reduce energy costs and promote economic security. Industrial and commercial users may want to increase efficiency and thus maximize profit.
Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal, and monitoring of waste materials. The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity, and is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health and the environment.collectiontransport processingrecycling Waste management is also carried out to recover resources from it. Waste management can involve solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive substances, with different methods and fields of expertise for each.resources
Waste management practices differ for developed and developing nations, for urban and rural areas, and for residential and industrial producers. Management for non- hazardous residential and institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually the responsibility of local government authorities, while management for non- hazardous commercial and industrial waste is usually the responsibility of the generator
Disposing of waste in a landfill involves burying waste. A properly-designed and well-managed landfill can be a hygienic and relatively inexpensive method of disposing of waste materials. Older, poorly-designed or poorly-managed landfills can create a number of adverse environmental impacts such as wind-blown litter. Another common byproduct of landfills is gas (mostly composed of methane and carbon dioxide), which is produced as organic waste breaks down anaerobically. This gas can create odor problems, kill surface vegetation, and is a greenhouse gas.methanecarbon dioxidegreenhouse gas
Incineration is a disposal method that involves combustion of waste material. Incinerators convert waste materials into heat, gas, steam, and ash. combustionheatgassteamash Incineration is carried out both on a small scale by individuals and on a large scale by industry. It is used to dispose of solid, liquid and gaseous waste. It is recognized as a practical method of disposing of certain hazardous waste materials (such as biological medical waste). Incineration is a controversial method of waste disposal, due to issues such as emission of gaseous pollutants
PVC, LDPE, PP, and PS are recyclable, although these are not as commonly collected. These items are usually composed of a single type of material, making them relatively easy to recycle into new products. The recycling of complex products (such as computers and electronic equipment) is more difficult, due to the additional dismantling and separation required PVCLDPEPPPS
Waste materials that are organic in nature, such as plant material, food scraps, and paper products, can be recycled using biological composting and digestion processes to decompose the organic matter. The resulting organic material is then recycled as mulch or compost for agricultural or landscaping purposes. In addition, waste gas from the process (such as methane) can be captured and used for generating electricity. The intention of biological processing in waste management is to control and accelerate the natural process of decomposition of organic matter.
There are a large variety of composting and digestion methods and technologies varying in complexity from simple home compost heaps, to industrial-scale enclosed-vessel digestion of mixed domestic waste. Methods of biological decomposition are differentiated as being aerobic or anaerobic methods, though hybrids of the two methods also exist.aerobicanaerobic
The energy content of waste products can be harnessed directly by using them as a direct combustion fuel, or indirectly by processing them into another type of fuel. Recycling through thermal treatment ranges from using waste as a fuel source for cooking or heating, to fuel for boilers to generate steam and electricity in a turbine.
Pyrolysis and gasification are two related forms of thermal treatment where waste materials are heated to high temperatures with limited oxygen availability. The process typically occurs in a sealed vessel under high pressure. Pyrolysisgasification Pyrolysis of solid waste converts the material into solid, liquid and gas products. The liquid and gas can be burnt to produce energy or refined into other products. The solid residue (char) can be further refined into products such as activated carbon.
An important method of waste management is the prevention of waste material being created, also known as waste reduction. Methods of avoidance include: reuse of second-hand products, repairing broken items instead of buying new, designing products to be refillable or reusable (such as cotton instead of plastic shopping bags),
encouraging consumers to avoid using disposable products (such as disposable cutlery), removing any food/liquid remains from cans, packaging,... and designing products that use less material to achieve the same purpose (for example, lightweighting of beverage cans).
Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment, into the atmosphere.chemicals particulate matterbiological materials Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth's ecosystems.
Anthropogenic sources :(human activity) mostly related to burning different kinds of fuel:fuel 1. "Stationary Sources" include smoke stacks of power plants, manufacturing facilities (factories) and waste incinerators, as well as furnaces and other types of fuel-burning heating devices 2. "Mobile Sources" include motor vehicles, marine vessels, aircraft and the effect of sound etc.
3. Chemicals, dust and controlled burn practices in agriculture and forestry management. Controlled or prescribed burning is a technique sometimes used in forest management, farming, prairie restoration or greenhouse gas abatement. Controlled burning stimulates the germination of some desirable forest trees, thus renewing the forest.
4.Fumes from paint, hair spray, varnish, aerosol sprays and other solvents 5.Waste deposition in landfills, which generate 6.Military, such as nuclear weapons, toxic gases, germ warfare and rocketry
Natural sources Dust from natural sources, usually large areas of land with little or no vegetation. Dust Methane, emitted by the digestion of food by animals, for example cattle. Methane Radon gas from radioactive decay within the Earth's from the decay of radium. It is considered to be a health hazard-causing lung cancer. Radon Smoke and carbon monoxide from wildfires. Smokecarbon monoxide Volcanic activity, which produce sulfur, chlorine, and ash particulates. Volcanicsulfurchlorineparticulates
There are various air pollution control technologies and land use planning strategies available to reduce air pollution. Land use planning ensures that land is used efficiently for the benefit of the wider economy and population as well as to protect the environment.land use planning
Efforts to reduce pollution from mobile sources includes: primary regulation (many developing countries have permissive regulations), increased fuel efficiency (such as through the use of hybrid vehicles),hybrid vehicles conversion to cleaner fuels (such as bioethanol, biodiesel, or conversion to electric vehicles). bioethanolbiodiesel
Industrial Ecology (IE) is an interdisciplinary field that focuses on the sustainable combination of environment, economy and technology. The central idea is the analogy between natural and socio-technical systems,so that our industrial systems should incorporate principles exhibited within natural ecosystems.environmenteconomy technology
Industrial ecology is the shifting of industrial process from linear (open loop) systems, in which resource and capital investments move through the system to become waste, to a closed loop system where wastes become inputs for new processes.
Industrial ecology proposes not to see industrial systems as being separate from the biosphere, but to consider it as a particular case of an ecosystem - but based on infrastructural capital rather than on natural capital. It is the idea that as natural systems do not have waste in them, we should model our systems after natural ones if we want them to be sustainable.
Along with more general energy conservation and material conservation goals, this strategy discourages forms of amoral purchasing and implies a political economy that values natural capital highly and relies on more instructional capital to design and maintain each unique industrial ecology.
The Design for the Environment aims to reduce risk to people and the environment by preventing pollution. DfE focuses on industries that combine the potential for chemical risk reduction and improvements in energy efficiency with a strong motivation to make lasting, positive changes It evaluates the human health and environmental considerations, performance, and cost of traditional and alternative technologies, materials, and processes. As incentives for participation and driving change, DfE offers unique technical tools, methodologies, and expertise.
"Organically grown" food is food grown and processed using no synthetic fertilizers or pesticides. Pesticides derived from natural sources (e.g., biological pesticides) may also be used in producing organically grown food. Increasingly, some consumers are purchasing organically grown and processed foods as a way to reduce their exposure to synthetic pesticides and fertilizers.
Biopesticides include naturally occurring substances that control pests (biochemical pesticides), microorganisms that control pests (microbial pesticides), and pesticidal substances produced by plants containing added genetic material (plant-incorporated protectants) or PIPs. Biopesticides
Efficient water use Efficient sewage treatment Biological waste treatment