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MAE 101 A INTRODUCTORY FLUID MECHANICS Winter 2009 http://maecourses.ucsd.edu/mae101a/ Instructor: Instructor: Dr. Juan C. Lasheras. Professor of Mechanical Aerospace Engineering and Bioengineering. (lasheras@ucsd.edu) lasheras@ucsd.edu Office: EBU II room 579. phone: 45437 Office hours: Tu. 2pm-4:00pm Teaching Assistants: Teaching Assistants: Head TA: Silvana Sartori. ssartori@ucsd.edu. Office hours: TBA ssartori@ucsd.edu TA: Anson Brune. abrune@ucsd.edu. Office hours. Tu. Noon – 2PM. EBU2 room 105 abrune@ucsd.edu TA. Kathie Osterday Chapin. Lecture Room :Center 115. Tu. and Th. 5:00 pm - 6:50pm TA Discussion Sessions: TAs will hold weekly (optional) discussion sessions to solve sample problems and answer student questions. TA discussion sessions will start on Friday, Jan. 9 th. Room TBA TA Discussion Sessions: TAs will hold weekly (optional) discussion sessions to solve sample problems and answer student questions. TA discussion sessions will start on Friday, Jan. 9 th. Room TBA

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Prerequisites: Math 20 E (vector calculus), 21 D (differential equations) or equivalent are required. Prerequisites: Math 20 E (vector calculus), 21 D (differential equations) or equivalent are required. Course Description: Course Description: Fluid statics; fluid kinematics; integral and differential forms of the conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy; Bernoulli equation; potential flows; dimensional analysis and similitude. Textbook: FLUID MECHANICS. Frank M. White.McGraw Hill. 2005 (6th edition) Textbook: FLUID MECHANICS. Frank M. White.McGraw Hill. 2005 (6th edition)

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Tentative Class Schedule WeekTopics Week 1,Introduction. Fundamental Concepts. (Chapter 1) Week 1,Introduction. Fundamental Concepts. (Chapter 1) Week 2, Basic Flow Analysis Techniques. Streamlines, Streaklines, Pathlines. (Chapter 1) Week 2, Basic Flow Analysis Techniques. Streamlines, Streaklines, Pathlines. (Chapter 1) Week 3,Fluid Statics. Pressure and Pressure Gradients, Hydrostatic Forces, Buoyancy (Chapter 2) Week 3,Fluid Statics. Pressure and Pressure Gradients, Hydrostatic Forces, Buoyancy (Chapter 2) Week 4,Basic Equations in Integral Form for Control Volume. The Reynolds Transport Theorem. Conservation of Mass. (Chapter 3) Week 4,Basic Equations in Integral Form for Control Volume. The Reynolds Transport Theorem. Conservation of Mass. (Chapter 3) FIRST MIDTERMJanuary 29 th, 2009 9 (in class) FIRST MIDTERMJanuary 29 th, 2009 9 (in class) Week 5,Basic Equations in Integral Form for Control Volume. Conservation of Linear and Angular Momentum, Energy Equation (Continuation of Chapter 3) Week 5,Basic Equations in Integral Form for Control Volume. Conservation of Linear and Angular Momentum, Energy Equation (Continuation of Chapter 3) Week 6,Motion of a Fluid Particle (Chapter 4). Week 6,Motion of a Fluid Particle (Chapter 4). Week 7,Basic Equations of Fluid Motion in Differential form. (Chapter 4) Week 7,Basic Equations of Fluid Motion in Differential form. (Chapter 4) SECOND MIDTERMFebruary 19 th, 2009 (in class) SECOND MIDTERMFebruary 19 th, 2009 (in class) Week 8,Basic Equations of Fluid Motion in Differential form Conservation of Mass and Momentum. (Chapter 4) Week 8,Basic Equations of Fluid Motion in Differential form Conservation of Mass and Momentum. (Chapter 4) Week 9,Incompressible, Inviscid Flow. Euler’s Equation. Bernoulli Equation. (Chapter 3 and 4) Week 9,Incompressible, Inviscid Flow. Euler’s Equation. Bernoulli Equation. (Chapter 3 and 4) Week 10,Dimensional Analysis and Similarity. (Chapter 5) Week 10,Dimensional Analysis and Similarity. (Chapter 5) Week 11, FINAL EXAM. March 19 th. 7PM - 10 PM Week 11, FINAL EXAM. March 19 th. 7PM - 10 PM

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Homework: Homework: Homework will be assigned each week. Due every Th. at noon (EBU II 564). TAs will solve problems in his weekly discussion sessions. Grading: Grading: Homework10% 1 st Midterm Exam. 25% 2 nd Midterm Exam. 25% Final Exam. March 19 th 2009. 7PM - 10 PM : 40%

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UCSD POLICY ON INTEGRITY OF SCHOLARSHIP Students' Responsibility Students are expected to complete the course in compliance with the instructor's standards. No student shall engage in any activity that involves attempting to receive a grade by means other than honest effort; for example: No student shall knowingly procure, provide, or accept any unauthorized material that contains questions or answers to any examination or assignment to be given at a subsequent time. Students are expected to complete the course in compliance with the instructor's standards. No student shall engage in any activity that involves attempting to receive a grade by means other than honest effort; for example: No student shall knowingly procure, provide, or accept any unauthorized material that contains questions or answers to any examination or assignment to be given at a subsequent time. No student shall complete, in part or in total, any examination or assignment for another person. No student shall complete, in part or in total, any examination or assignment for another person. No student shall knowingly allow any examination or assignment to be completed, in part or in total, for himself or herself by another person. No student shall knowingly allow any examination or assignment to be completed, in part or in total, for himself or herself by another person. No student shall plagiarize or copy the work of another person and submit it as his or her own work. No student shall plagiarize or copy the work of another person and submit it as his or her own work. No student shall employ aids excluded by the instructor in undertaking course work or in completing any exam or assignment. No student shall employ aids excluded by the instructor in undertaking course work or in completing any exam or assignment. No student shall alter graded class assignments or examinations and then resubmit them for re-grading. Any breach of academic honesty will be considered grounds for failure in the course No student shall alter graded class assignments or examinations and then resubmit them for re-grading. Any breach of academic honesty will be considered grounds for failure in the course

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Academic Policy on Integrity and Scholarship. Refer to Student Link website: UCSD Policy on Integrity and Scholarship. http://www-senate.ucsd.edu/manual/appendices/app2.htm

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MECHANICS: That science, or branch of Physics, which treats of the action of forces on bodies. MECHANICS: That science, or branch of Physics, which treats of the action of forces on bodies. That part of mechanics which considers the action of forces in producing rest or equilibrium is called Statics ; that which relates to such action in producing motion is called Dynamics. That part of mechanics which considers the action of forces in producing rest or equilibrium is called Statics ; that which relates to such action in producing motion is called Dynamics. The term mechanics includes the action of forces on all bodies, whether solid, liquid, or gaseous. It is sometimes, however, and formerly was often, used distinctively of solid bodies only The term mechanics includes the action of forces on all bodies, whether solid, liquid, or gaseous. It is sometimes, however, and formerly was often, used distinctively of solid bodies only FLUID MECHANICS: The branch of Physics, which treats of the action of forces on fluids. FLUID MECHANICS: The branch of Physics, which treats of the action of forces on fluids. – In the case of liquid is called also Hydrostatics, or Hydrodynamics, according as the laws of rest or of motion are considered. – Aerodynamics: The mechanics of bodies moving in the atmosphere – The mechanics of gaseous bodies is called also Pneumatics.

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Fluid Fluid A continuous, amorphous substance whose molecules move freely past one another and that has the tendency to assume the shape of its container; a liquid or gas. A continuous, amorphous substance whose molecules move freely past one another and that has the tendency to assume the shape of its container; a liquid or gas.

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Fluids share the properties of not resisting deformation and the ability to flow. Fluids share the properties of not resisting deformation and the ability to flow. These properties are typically a function of their inability to support a shear stress in static equilibrium. shear stress equilibriumshear stress equilibrium While in a solid, stress is a function of strain, in a fluidstress is a function of rate of strain.

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dynamic viscosity, in a fluid stress is a function of rate of strain

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Why study Fluid Mechanics? AERODYNAMICS

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Why study Fluid Mechanics? AERODYNAMICS

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Why study Fluid Mechanics? SUPERSONIC AERODYNAMICS

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Why study Fluid Mechanics? AERODYNAMICS

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Why study Fluid Mechanics? Aerospace Propulsion

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Why study Fluid Mechanics? Industrial Gas Turbine for Power Generation

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Why study Fluid Mechanics? JET (aerodynamic) NOISE

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Why study Fluid Mechanics? HYDRODYNAMICS

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Why study Fluid Mechanics? OCEANOGRAPHY

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Why study Fluid Mechanics? Geophysical, Environmental Fluid Mechanics, Climatology

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Why study Fluid Mechanics? Weather Forecasting, Climatology

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Why study Fluid Mechanics? Geophysical Fluid Mechanics

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Why study Fluid Mechanics? Long-term Weather Prediction

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Why is the water always cold in Southern California Pacific Coast?

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Upwelling along the coast caused by Ekman transport of waters (waters move to the right of the wind). The waters moved offshore are replaced by waters from below. This brings cold, nutrient rich waters to the surface. As the winds blow over the ocean, sea surface temperatures drop about 4°C (7°F), indicating an upwelling of deep ocean water. Chlorophyll concentrations in the surface water go from negligible, in the absence of winds, to very active at more than 1.5 milligrams per cubic meter in the presence of the winds.Chlorophyll The effect of winds on the vertical movement of water

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Why study Fluid Mechanics? The effect of winds on the vertical movement of water Downwelling caused by Ekman transport onshore (movement of water to the right of the wind direction).

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SANTA ANA WINDS

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Santa Ana Winds Transverse Range Peninsular Range

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Adiabatic Compression = 1.4 for air P 0.4 /T 1.4 = Constant Anabatic winds: decompresses, cools down and looses humidity Katabatic winds: dry air compresses and heats up

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Santa Ana Winds The hottest temperature ever recorded in North America outside Death Valley, 133°F (56°C), was recorded on June 17, 1859North AmericaDeath ValleyJune 171859 off the coast of Santa Barbara during a Santa Ana wind (Sundowner wind).

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Santa Ana Winds Transverse Range Peninsular Range Katabatic winds (from the Greek word katabatikos), Föhn wind or Foehn winds, Chinook winds

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Why study Fluid Mechanics? Combustion, Chemically Reacting Flows, Chemical Engineering

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Why study Fluid Mechanics? Chemical Reactors

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Why study Fluid Mechanics? Heat Transfer

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Pollution Dispersion

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Why study Fluid Mechanics? Environmental Fluid Mechanics

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Why study Fluid Mechanics?

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Aerodynamics of a Football

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Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA) Fusiform : spindle shaped, may involve considerable portion of the vessel BIOFLUID MECHANICS

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Three-dimensional Volume rendering of an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm R L

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AAA Occurrence AAA Occurrence Affected: 4-5 % of U.S. Population: 1,500,000 patients Affected: 4-5 % of U.S. Population: 1,500,000 patients 250,000 new cases per year 250,000 new cases per year Responsible for ~25,000 deaths per year Responsible for ~25,000 deaths per year 10 th leading cause of death in males (>55 years) 10 th leading cause of death in males (>55 years) Upon rupture death is often sudden Upon rupture death is often sudden Mortality rate as high as 80-90 % Mortality rate as high as 80-90 %

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A A A-A cross cut: Flow in the transverse plane Flow in the longitudinal plane

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Recirculation eddies Jet detached from the walls

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Recirculation eddies Jet detached from the walls

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Tentative Class Schedule WeekTopics Week 1,Introduction. Fundamental Concepts. (Chapter 1) Week 1,Introduction. Fundamental Concepts. (Chapter 1) Week 2, Basic Flow Analysis Techniques. Streamlines, Streaklines, Pathlines. (Chapter 1) Week 2, Basic Flow Analysis Techniques. Streamlines, Streaklines, Pathlines. (Chapter 1) Week 3,Fluid Statics. Pressure and Pressure Gradients, Hydrostatic Forces, Buoyancy (Chapter 2) Week 3,Fluid Statics. Pressure and Pressure Gradients, Hydrostatic Forces, Buoyancy (Chapter 2) Week 4,Basic Equations in Integral Form for Control Volume. The Reynolds Transport Theorem. Conservation of Mass. (Chapter 3) Week 4,Basic Equations in Integral Form for Control Volume. The Reynolds Transport Theorem. Conservation of Mass. (Chapter 3) FIRST MIDTERMJanuary 31st, 2008 FIRST MIDTERMJanuary 31st, 2008 Week 5,Basic Equations in Integral Form for Control Volume. Conservation of Linear and Angular Momentum, Energy Equation (Continuation of Chapter 3) Week 5,Basic Equations in Integral Form for Control Volume. Conservation of Linear and Angular Momentum, Energy Equation (Continuation of Chapter 3) Week 6,Motion of a Fluid Particle (Chapter 4). Week 6,Motion of a Fluid Particle (Chapter 4). Week 7,Basic Equations of Fluid Motion in Differential form. (Chapter 4) Week 7,Basic Equations of Fluid Motion in Differential form. (Chapter 4) SECOND MIDTERMFebruary 25 nd, 2008 SECOND MIDTERMFebruary 25 nd, 2008 Week 8,Basic Equations of Fluid Motion in Differential form Conservation of Mass and Momentum. (Chapter 4) Week 8,Basic Equations of Fluid Motion in Differential form Conservation of Mass and Momentum. (Chapter 4) Week 9,Incompressible, Inviscid Flow. Euler’s Equation. Bernoulli Equation. (Chapter 3 and 4) Week 9,Incompressible, Inviscid Flow. Euler’s Equation. Bernoulli Equation. (Chapter 3 and 4) Week 10,Dimensional Analysis and Similarity. (Chapter 5) Week 10,Dimensional Analysis and Similarity. (Chapter 5) Week 11, FINAL EXAM. March. Week 11, FINAL EXAM. March.

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Fluid Mechanics, physical science dealing with the action of fluids at rest (fluid statics) or in motion (fluid dynamics), and their interaction with flow devices and applications in engineering. The subject branches out into sub-disciplines such as: Aerodynamics - deals with the motion of air and other gases, and their interactions with bodies in motion such as lift and drag; Aerodynamics HydraulicsHydraulics - application of fluid mechanics to engineering devices involving liquids such as flow through pipes, weir and dam design; Geophysical fluid dynamics- fluid phenomena associated with the dynamics of the atmosphere and the oceans such as hurricane and weather systems, Bio-fluid mechanics- fluid mechanics involved in biophysical processes such as blood flow in arteries, and many others. Fluid dynamics has a wide range of applications, including calculating forces and moments on aircraft, determining the mass flow rate of petroleum through pipelines, predicting weather patterns, etc.forcesmomentsaircraftmass flow ratepetroleumweather

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