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QUICK DESIGN GUIDE (--THIS SECTION DOES NOT PRINT--) This PowerPoint 2007 template produces a 36x48 inch professional poster. You can use it to create your research poster and save valuable time placing titles, subtitles, text, and graphics. We provide a series of online tutorials that will guide you through the poster design process and answer your poster production questions. To view our template tutorials, go online to PosterPresentations.com and click on HELP DESK. When you are ready to print your poster, go online to PosterPresentations.com. Need Assistance? Call us at Object Placeholders Using the placeholders To add text, click inside a placeholder on the poster and type or paste your text. To move a placeholder, click it once (to select it). Place your cursor on its frame, and your cursor will change to this symbol Click once and drag it to a new location where you can resize it. Section Header placeholder Click and drag this preformatted section header placeholder to the poster area to add another section header. Use section headers to separate topics or concepts within your presentation. Text placeholder Move this preformatted text placeholder to the poster to add a new body of text. Picture placeholder Move this graphic placeholder onto your poster, size it first, and then click it to add a picture to the poster. RESEARCH POSTER PRESENTATION DESIGN © Student discounts are available on our Facebook page. Go to PosterPresentations.com and click on the FB icon. QUICK TIPS (--THIS SECTION DOES NOT PRINT--) This PowerPoint template requires basic PowerPoint (version 2007 or newer) skills. Below is a list of commonly asked questions specific to this template. If you are using an older version of PowerPoint some template features may not work properly. Template FAQs Verifying the quality of your graphics Go to the VIEW menu and click on ZOOM to set your preferred magnification. This template is at 100% the size of the final poster. All text and graphics will be printed at 100% their size. To see what your poster will look like when printed, set the zoom to 100% and evaluate the quality of all your graphics before you submit your poster for printing. Modifying the layout This template has four different column layouts. Right-click your mouse on the background and click on LAYOUT to see the layout options. The columns in the provided layouts are fixed and cannot be moved but advanced users can modify any layout by going to VIEW and then SLIDE MASTER. Importing text and graphics from external sources TEXT: Paste or type your text into a pre-existing placeholder or drag in a new placeholder from the left side of the template. Move it anywhere as needed. PHOTOS: Drag in a picture placeholder, size it first, click in it and insert a photo from the menu. TABLES: You can copy and paste a table from an external document onto this poster template. To adjust the way the text fits within the cells of a table that has been pasted, right-click on the table, click FORMAT SHAPE then click on TEXT BOX and change the INTERNAL MARGIN values to Modifying the color scheme To change the color scheme of this template go to the DESIGN menu and click on COLORS. You can choose from the provided color combinations or create your own. © 2013 PosterPresentations.com 2117 Fourth Street, Unit C Berkeley CA Gas Chromatography (GC) is a technique that is used to separate volatile components of a mixture. A small amount of the sample to be analyzed is drawn up into a syringe. The syringe needle is placed into a hot injector port of the gas chromatograph, and the sample is injected. The injector is set to a temperature higher than the components’ boiling points. So, components of the mixture evaporate into the gas phase inside the injector. A carrier gas, such as helium, flows through the injector and pushes the gaseous components of the sample onto the GC column. It is within the column that separation of the components takes place. The Vernier Mini Gas Chromatograph, or “Mini GC,” is an instrument for separating, analyzing, and identifying substances contained in a volatile liquid or gaseous sample. The Mini GC uses an efficient, software-controlled internal pump system that allows the Mini GC to use room air as the carrier gas. It has software-controlled temperature regulation from 30–120°C and pressure regulation from 1–21 kPa above ambient. The Mini GC has high-quality Restek MXT-1 Stainless (11 meter) capillary column. It usually takes short Warm-up time: Maximum of 10°C/minute. Abstract Objectives Synthesis of Isopentyl (Isoamyl) Acetate Materials The materials used for this experiment were: conical vials, magnetic spin vain, a reflux condenser calcium chloride drying tube, isopentyl alcohol,acetic acid, H2SO4 silica beads, sand bath, aluminum foil, hot plate, thermometers, tweezers, 5% NaHCO3, H2O, Na2SO4, boiling stone and the GC. Method A 5ml conical vial that contained a magnetic spin vain was set up and a reflux condenser protected by a calcium chloride drying tube was also attached to the vial. Next, 1.05ml of isopentyl alcohol, 1.5ml of acetic acid, 4 drops of concentrated H2SO4 and about 100mg of silica beads were added to the vial. The mixture was then heated in a sand bath, between temperatures of ̊ C, for one hour.. The heated mixture was then cooled at room temperature and the spin vane and silica bead were rinsed with ether that drained into the mixture. Next, the mixture was extracted 3 times with 2ml portions of 5% NaHCO3 and once with 1ml of H2O. The organic layer was then dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate, Na2SO4 and then analyzed with the GC at different temperatures. Isolation of Limonene Materials The materials used for this experiment were: citrus fruits (orange, grapefruit, lemon and lime), grater, aluminum foil, erlenmeyer flask, digital balance, hexanes, pipettes, beakers, sodium sulfate, pasteur pipet, cotton, tared vial, and hot plate. Method Approximately two grams of the outer part of the peel of a citrus fruit was grated onto an aluminum foil, then transferred to a 10ml erlenmeyer flask. 3ml of hexanes was added to the peel and the mixture was allowed to sit for 5 minutes, while being periodically swirled. After 5 minutes, the liquid was pipetted into a clean beaker. Another 3ml of hexane was added to the flask and allowed to sit for 5 minutes while swirling periodically, then the two portions of hexane pipetted were mixed together. Next, the hexanes were filtered through a pasteur pipet containing a small amount of cotton and sodium sulfate on top of the cotton. The filtrate was collected in a tared vial and the hexane s were allowed to evaporate in the hood, using a hot plate at low setting. The crude product obtained was then analyzed in the GC. Materials and Methods Mini GC vs. Gow Mac Samples for Isoamyl Acetate Results Conclusion Over all, Gow Mac had better results than Mini GC because it is not limited to analyzing certain organic compounds. Distillation was an effective method for toluene and hexane solutions because their physical characteristics such as boiling point, structure, and polarity. However, distillation method did not work for synthesis of isoamyl acetate. Most effective group that contained limonene was grape fruit. Temperature and pressure have an effect on retention time of how certain Gas Chromatograph peaks come out. In synthesis of Isoamyl Acetate, the peak for isoamyl acetate comes before isoamyl alcohol on Gow Mac, whereas it is the opposite for the Mini GC. This is because Gow Mac contaoins carbon wax and Mini GC is silica based. References Acknowledgements Funding: NSF Advisors: Dr. Vivian Mativo and Mr. Pablo Pedroso Mrs. Margaret Major Ms. Davis To optimize the conditions of GC to use the GC to monitor Separation of mixture of Toluene and Hexanes via Distillation. Synthesis of Isopentyl (Isoamyl) Acetate Isolation of Limonene. Dr. Vivian Mativo & Mr. Pablo Pedroso Amal Ahmed, Eled Gebrehiwot, Hanna Nune, Lidia Fekadu, Onyinyechi Ochiobi Optimizing the Operating Conditions of a Gow Mac Series 400 Isothermal Gas Chromatograph and Vernier Mini GC Gow Mac Mini GC Standard Hexane and Hexane sample Standard HexaneHexane Sample Esterfication Reaction Isoamyl Acetate Sample Isoamyl Acetate Application Isoamyl acetate is one of the most important flavor compounds used in food industries. Isoamyl acetate is used as an artificial sweetener in foods and beer. For example, an artificial perfume to mask unpleasant odors in products such as shoe polish. It is also used as a honey bee pheromone and can be used to attract large groups of honeybees to a small area. Limonene Application Limonene is used as orange flavoring in some types of candy, and it is added to dog shampoo to kill fleas. Its also has a purpose in certain plants may be to provide protection by acting as a natural insecticide. Separation of a mixture of Toulene and Hexane via Distillation Materials The materials used for this experiment were: hexanes, toulene, conical vials, boiling stone, Hickman still, hot plate, thermometers, sand bath, aluminum foil, and the GC. Method 1.0ml of toulene and 1.0ml of hexane were measured and mixed together in a 5ml conical flask. Next, one boiling stone was added and a Hickman still was set up. The sand bath was covered with a foil and the hexane distillate that distilled over the temperature range ̊ C was collected. Finally, the distillate was run in the GC to test for contamination from other products. Toluene Hexane Synthesis of Isopentyl (Isoamyl) Acetate Re-distilled Hexane Sample Hexane Sample #2 Standard of Isoamyl Acetate Isolation of Limonene Limonene (Grapefruit) Sample at different temperature Hexane used as an industrial chemical and laboratory reagent. It used to extract edible oils from seed and vegetable crops. (eg, soybean, peanuts, and corn) It also used in the formation of glues for shoes, leather products and roofing. Separation of a mixture of Toulene and Hexane Application
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