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Q6 1.  Bond Energy is the average energy required to break 1 mole of a covalent bond in the gaseous state. 2.

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Presentation on theme: "Q6 1.  Bond Energy is the average energy required to break 1 mole of a covalent bond in the gaseous state. 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 Q6 1

2  Bond Energy is the average energy required to break 1 mole of a covalent bond in the gaseous state. 2

3 2C 8 H O2  16CO H 2 0(g) 3

4  Octane: 7 C-C Single Bonds 18 C-H Single Bonds  Oxygen 1 O=O Double Bond 4

5  Bond Energies:  C – C Single Bond: 350 kJ mol -1  C – H Single Bond: 410 kJ mol -1  O=O Double Bond: 496 kJ mol -1 5

6  Energy required to break bonds in 2 mole of C 8 H 18 = = 2 [(7 x 350) + (18 x 410)] kJ mol -1 = 2 [ ] kJ mol -1 = kJ mol -1  Energy required to break bonds in 25 moles of O 2 = 25 x 496 kJ mol -1 = kJ mol -1 6

7  Carbon Dioxide: 2 C=O Double Bonds  Water: 2 O-H Single Bonds 7

8  Bond Energies:  C=O Double Bond: 740 kJ mol -1  O–H Single Bond: 460 kJ mol -1 8

9  Energy released in forming bonds in 16 mole of CO 2 = 16 [2 x 740] kJ mol -1 = 16 [1480] kJ mol -1 = kJ mol -1  Energy required to break bonds in 18 moles of H 2 O = 18 [2 x 460] kJ mol -1 = 18 [920] kJ mol -1 = kJ mol -1 9

10 2C 8 H O2  16CO H 2 0(g)  ΔH c ø for 2 moles of octane = Energy required + Energy Released = ( ) + ( (-23680)) kJ mol -1 = (32060) + (-40240) kJ mol -1 = kJ mol -1 10

11  Standard Enthalpy change of combustion is the heat evolved when 1 mole of a substance is completely burnt in excess oxygen.  ΔH c ø for 1 mole of octane = ½ x kJ mol -1 = kJ mol -1 11

12 AlkaneFormulaΔH c / kJ mol -1 HeptaneC 7 H OctaneC 8 H NonaneC 9 H Suggest a reason for the discrepancy between the ΔH c for octane you calculated in (b)(ii) and that given in the table

13  Calculated Value = kJ mol -1  Theoretical Value = kJ mol -1  Calculated Value is less than theoretical Value Given that the values are calculated based on bond energies provided in the Data Booklet, which are the average values from empirical data from a large range of molecules, thus there may be discrepancies in using those values to represent the value of enthalpy change of combustion 13

14  Increase in magnitude of values:  Reaction is more exothermic  More energy is released from the reaction  The greater the number of carbon atoms, the more exothermic the reaction 14 AlkaneFormulaΔH c / kJ mol -1 HeptaneC 7 H OctaneC 8 H NonaneC 9 H

15  Heptane C 7 H 16  Octane C 8 H 18  Nonane C 9 H 20 15

16 16

17 C 7 H O 2  7CO 2 + 8H 2 0 C 8 H /2O 2  8CO 2 + 9H 2 0 C 9 H O 2  9CO H 2 0  For each equation, there is  an increase in 1 –CH2- unit in the alkane and 1.5 moles of oxygen  an increase in 1 mole of carbon dioxide and water formed 17

18  For Each equation, change in enthalpy = additional Energy required to break Bonds + additional Energy released from forming bonds = [(2 x 350)+(2 x 410) + 3/2(496)] – [(2 x 740) + (2x460)] = – 2400 kJ mol -1 = -136 kJ mol -1 therefore, there is a regular increase in magnitude of enthalpy change of combustion from heptane to octane to nonane as more energy is released each time 18

19 19

20  q = m x c x Δt  q = 1000 x 4.18 x (65-25) = 1000 x 4.18 x 40 =

21  Mass of ethanol = 0.79 g cm -3 x 10 cm -3  = 7.9g  Amount of Ethanol =_ 7.9 _ 2x x x16.0 = 7.9 / 46 mol = mol 21

22  ΔH = - q/n = /0.172 J mol -1 = J mol -1  Since the system is only 70% efficient,  Actual ΔH = x 70% = J mol -1  = kJ mol -1  = 1390 kJ mol -1 22


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