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Inductive and Deductive Method Karma Eden

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INDUCTIVE METHOD Definition It is a teaching method that promotes learning through inductive reasoning where skills of observation, comparing, classifying are used to arrive at generalizations or definition of concepts.

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Principles underlying the use of inductive method 1. this is a method where skills of observation, comparing, finding patterns, classifying are used to arrive at rules/ generalizations / definitions of concept. 2. it promotes learning through inductive reasoning. 3. this method uses the Example – Rule (Egg- Rule)

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INDUCTIVE MODEL The inductive model consists of 4 phases Phase I: The open- ended phase i.Students are shown an example of the concept / generalization ii.Students are asked to observe the example and describe it. iii.Students are shown a non-example of the concept / generalization iv.Again the students are asked to observe and describe the non examples

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V. more examples or non- examples are shown followed by observation and description Vi. Students are encouraged to compare the examples /non-examples, find similarities and differences. Phase II: The convergent phase i. students are prompted to identify the similar patterns / characteristics/ critical attributes present in the examples

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Phase III: the closure phase i. students are encouraged to arrive at the generalization/ definition of the concept stating the characteristics identified in the examples. Phase IV: the application phase I. students are encouraged to apply the definition / generalization arrived at ; some more examples and non- examples are identified.

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Sample lesson Topic : Matter Objectives 1. define matter 2. give at least two examples of matters 3. list at least two examples of matter 4. state at least two characteristics of matter

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Phase I: The open ended phase Teacher gives the following examples and non examples of concepts, matter and ask the students to observe, compare and describe the examples and non examples. Examples Non example Salt love Teacher gives another example and non example and asks the students to find the similarities existing among examples and the differences between the examples and non examples

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Water happiness Milk anger Stone hatred Air jealous Oxygen peace Let us assume the following similarities and differences given by the students Some are solid substances neither solid nor liquid/ gaseou s Some are gaseous substances All occupy spaces do not occupy space They have mass no mass Some have definite shape no shape Some take the shape of container Some has colour no colour

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Phase II: The convergent phase Now the teacher ask the students to find patterns in the examples Substances – solid, liquid and gas, Colour, shape, Volume – occupies space Mass The teacher asks the students to identify the common features / critical attributes of the examples: Matter is defined as “ a substances that has mass and occupied spaces”

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Phase IV: the application phase Here the teacher may ask the students to give some additional examples of the concepts, matter: Kerosene,petrol, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen

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Deductive method Definition It is a teaching method that promotes learning through deductive reasoning where rules/ generalization/ definitions of concepts are learnt first and then specific instances / examples are studied for further understanding.

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Deductive model The deductive model consist of 4 phases Phase 1: presentation of the abstraction The teacher defines the concept or states the generalization Phase 2: illustration of the abstraction The teacher illustrates the concept or generalization with examples

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Phase 3: students provide examples or apply rule or generalization to new situations. Students are encouraged to generate examples for the abstractions given. Phase 4: closure The students restates the abstractions presented and a summary of important ides related to the abstraction presented is given.

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Sample lesson Topic/ concept: predators Objectives: by the end of the lesson the students should be able to: 1. define the term predators. 2. give at least 2 examples of predators. 3. Give at least 2 non examples of predators 4. identify predators from a given list of animals

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Phase 1. presentation of the abstraction Teacher past the chart on the board giving the definition of predators Predators refer to animals that hunt other animals for food Phase II: illustration of abstraction Teacher provides examples of predators - tigers - hawks - foxes

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Phase III: students provide examples/ apply rule or generalization to new situations Students are encouraged to give examples ; Leopards Snakes Lions [ students may be asked to explain and defend the examples provided by them]. Phase IV: closure Students are asked to define the term ‘predators’. They restate the definition / abstraction presented.

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