Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Mars South Pole C0 2 -110 F.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Mars South Pole C0 2 -110 F."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Mars South Pole C F

2 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 7 The Jovian Planets

3 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 7 The Jovian Planets Video

4 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Observations of Jupiter and Saturn The Discoveries of Uranus and Neptune Bulk Properties of the Jovian Planets Jupiter’s Atmosphere The Atmospheres of the Outer Jovian Worlds Jovian Interiors Units of Chapter 7

5 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Question 1 Both Jupiter and Saturn a)have liquid metallic hydrogen in their interiors. b)have rings. c)emit more energy than they absorb from the Sun. d)rotate very rapidly. e)All of the above.

6 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Question 1 Both Jupiter and Saturn a)have liquid metallic hydrogen in their interiors. b)have rings. c)emit more energy than they absorb from the Sun. d)rotate very rapidly. e)All of the above.

7 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Jovian planets share all of the following traits EXCEPT Question 2 a) a low-density gaseous core. b) large magnetic fields. c) lots of hydrogen & helium gas. d) many moons. e) differential rotation.

8 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Jovian planets share all of the following traits EXCEPT Question 2 a) a low-density gaseous core. b) large magnetic fields. c) lots of hydrogen & helium gas. d) many moons. e) differential rotation. All of the jovian planets have dense, compact cores more massive than Earth, surrounded by liquid and gaseous layers.

9 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Jupiter and the other jovian planets are noticeably oblate because they have Question 3 a) very strong magnetic fields. b) powerful gravity pulling on the poles. c) rapid rotation and a fluid interior. d) many moons that tidally distort their shapes. e) All of the above.

10 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Jupiter and the other jovian planets are noticeably oblate because they have Question 3 a) very strong magnetic fields. b) powerful gravity pulling on the poles. c) rapid rotation and a fluid interior. d) many moons that tidally distort their shapes. e) All of the above. All of the jovian planets are larger than Earth, all spin faster, all have lower density, and all show a flattened, “oblate” shape.

11 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Jupiter can be imaged well from Earth, even with a small telescope. Here: Jupiter with its Galilean moons Observations of Jupiter and Saturn

12 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. True-color image of Jupiter Observations of Jupiter and Saturn Rotation Differential Rotation King of gods

13 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Natural-color image of Saturn - Roman god of agriculture Observations of Jupiter and Saturn

14 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Observations of Jupiter and Saturn Cassini image of Jupiter, true color $3.3 Billion 1977 to 2017

15 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Uranus, in natural color. Note the absence of features. Discovered in 1781 William Herschel Wanted to name it George. Photo Voyager The Discoveries of Uranus and Neptune Greek god of the sky.

16 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Neptune in natural color 1846 Johann Galle Voyager 2 image 1989 Roman god of the sea The Discoveries of Uranus and Neptune

17 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Jovian planets are large and much less dense than the terrestrial planets; Saturn is less dense than water! Bulk Properties of the Jovian Planets

18 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Jovian planets, compared to Earth Bulk Properties of the Jovian Planets

19 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Peculiarity of Uranus: Axis of rotation lies almost in the plane of its orbit. Seasonal variations are extreme. Bulk Properties of the Jovian Planets

20 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Atmosphere has bright zones and dark belts. Zones are cooler, and are higher than belts. Stable flow underlies zones and bands, called zonal flow. Simplified model: Jupiter’s Atmosphere

21 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. What is the probable source of the variations in Jupiter’s belts and zones? Question 4 a) convection of ammonia ice upward b) differential rotation and underlying zonal flow c) oblateness due to low density d) thermonuclear fusion e) Jupiter’s huge magnetosphere

22 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. What is the probable source of the variations in Jupiter’s belts and zones? Question 4 a) convection of ammonia ice upward b) differential rotation and underlying zonal flow c) oblateness due to low density d) thermonuclear fusion e) Jupiter’s huge magnetosphere

23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. No solid surface; take top of troposphere to be 0 km. Lowest cloud layer cannot be seen by optical telescopes. Measurements by Galileo probe show high wind speeds even at great depth – probably due to heating from planet, not from Sun. Jupiter’s Atmosphere

24 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Galileo probe descended into Jupiter’s atmosphere and returned valuable data. The arrow indicates its entry point. Jupiter’s Atmosphere Probe

25 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Galileo & Probe $1.6 Billion

26 Galileo Spacecraft

27 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Major visible features: Bands of clouds; Great Red Spot Jupiter’s Atmosphere Red spot

28 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Two examples of smaller storms merging, first into a smaller red spot, second into existing Great Red Spot Jupiter’s Atmosphere

29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9

30 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. What is the source of Jupiter’s large magnetic field? Question 5 a) charged particles moving in the atmosphere b) thermonuclear fusion in Jupiter’s core c) the gravitational attraction of Jupiter’s many large moons d) the Great Red Spot e) metallic hydrogen swirling in its interior

31 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. What is the source of Jupiter’s large magnetic field? Question 5 a) charged particles moving in the atmosphere b) thermonuclear fusion in Jupiter’s core c) the gravitational attraction of Jupiter’s many large moons d) the Great Red Spot e) metallic hydrogen swirling in its interior

32 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The atmosphere of Saturn is similar to that of Jupiter, except that Saturn is somewhat colder and its atmosphere is thicker. The Atmospheres of the Outer Jovian Worlds

33 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Saturn’s atmosphere is similar to Jupiter’s, except pressure is lower. It has three cloud layers. Cloud layers are thicker than Jupiter’s; see only top layer. The Atmospheres of the Outer Jovian Worlds

34 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Saturn also has large storms, and bands. The Atmospheres of the Outer Jovian Worlds Cloud Rotation

35 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Storms near Saturn’s equator The Atmospheres of the Outer Jovian Worlds

36 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Enormous thunderstorm on Saturn The Atmospheres of the Outer Jovian Worlds

37 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Saturn radiates even more excess energy than Jupiter because Question 6 a) Saturn is still radiating heat left over from its formation. b) Saturn’s thick cloud layer contributes to a larger greenhouse effect. c) helium rain gives off heat as it falls toward Saturn’s center. d) Saturn’s atmosphere contains methane. e) Saturn can fuse hydrogen into helium in its core, like the Sun.

38 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Saturn radiates even more excess energy than Jupiter because Question 6 a) Saturn is still radiating heat left over from its formation. b) Saturn’s thick cloud layer contributes to a larger greenhouse effect. c) helium rain gives off heat as it falls toward Saturn’s center. d) Saturn’s atmosphere contains methane. e) Saturn can fuse hydrogen into helium in its core, like the Sun. Jupiter and Neptune also radiate excess heat, most likely left over from their formation.

39 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Rotation of Uranus can be measured by watching storms. The Atmospheres of the Outer Jovian Worlds

40 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Which of these is TRUE about the seasons on Uranus? Question 8 a) Its strange tilt produces extreme seasonal variations. b) With its tilt of 29°, Uranus has four seasons similar to those on Earth. c) It never shows any weather in its bland clouds. d) It spins so fast all seasons are the same.

41 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Which of these is TRUE about the seasons on Uranus? Question 8 a) Its strange tilt produces extreme seasonal variations. b) With its tilt of 29°, Uranus has four seasons similar to those on Earth. c) It never shows any weather in its bland clouds. d) It spins so fast all seasons are the same.

42 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Neptune has storm systems similar to those on Jupiter, but fewer. The large storm system at top has disappeared in recent years. The Atmospheres of the Outer Jovian Worlds

43 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The two outer jovian planets appear bluish in color because Question 7 a) gaseous ammonia in their atmospheres absorbs blue light. b) methane absorbs red light. c) cold hydrogen reflects blue light. d) dust in their atmospheres scatters blue light, similar to Earth.

44 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The two outer jovian planets appear bluish in color because Question 7 a) gaseous ammonia in their atmospheres absorbs blue light. b) methane absorbs red light. c) cold hydrogen reflects blue light. d) dust in their atmospheres scatters blue light, similar to Earth.

45 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. No direct information is available about Jupiter’s interior, but its main components, hydrogen and helium, are quite well understood. The central portion is thought to be a rocky core. Jovian Interiors

46 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Question 9 The magnetic fields of which two planets are most unusual? a) Jupiter and Neptune b) Jupiter and Saturn c) Jupiter and Earth d) Saturn and Earth e) Uranus and Neptune

47 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Question 9 The magnetic fields of which two planets are most unusual? Both Uranus and Neptune have fields that are off-center, and very inclined to their rotation axes. a) Jupiter and Neptune b) Jupiter and Saturn c) Jupiter and Earth d) Saturn and Earth e) Uranus and Neptune

48 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Uranus and Neptune both have substantial magnetic fields, but at a large angle to their rotation axes. The rectangle within each planet shows a bar magnet that would produce a similar field. Note that both Uranus’s and Neptune’s are significantly off center. Jovian Interiors

49 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Jupiter’s magnetosphere: Intrinsic field strength is 20,000 times that of Earth. Magnetosphere can extend beyond the orbit of Saturn. Jovian Interiors

50 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Magnetic fields of Uranus and Neptune must not be produced by dynamos, as the other planets’ fields are. Interior structure of Uranus and Neptune, compared to that of Jupiter and Saturn: Jovian Interiors

51 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Aurorae are seen on Jupiter, and have the same cause as those on Earth – the interaction of solar wind particles with the magnetosphere. Jovian Interiors

52 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Summary of Chapter 7 Jupiter and Saturn were known to the ancients; Uranus was discovered by chance, and Neptune was predicted from anomalies in the orbit of Uranus. Jovian planets are large but not dense; they are fluid and display differential rotation. Cloud layers have light zones and dark bands; wind pattern, called zonal flow, is stable.

53 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Summary of Chapter 7, cont. Storms appear with regularity; the Great Red Spot of Jupiter has lasted for hundreds of years (that we know of). Due to conductive interiors and rapid rotation, Jovian planets have large magnetic fields. Jupiter, Saturn, and Neptune radiate more energy than they receive from the Sun.


Download ppt "Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Mars South Pole C0 2 -110 F."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google