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**CHEMISTRY Matter and Change**

Chapter 13: Gases

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**Table Of Contents Section 13.1 The Gas Laws**

CHAPTER13 Table Of Contents Section The Gas Laws Section The Ideal Gas Law Section Gas Stoichiometry Click a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides. Exit

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SECTION13.1 The Gas Laws State the relationships among pressure, temperature, and volume of a constant amount of gas. Apply the gas laws to problems involving the pressure, temperature, and volume of a constant amount of gas. scientific law: describes a relationship in nature that is supported by many experiments

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**The Gas Laws Boyle’s law absolute zero Charles’s law Gay-Lussac’s law**

SECTION13.1 The Gas Laws Boyle’s law absolute zero Charles’s law Gay-Lussac’s law combined gas law For a fixed amount of gas, a change in one variable—pressure, temperature, or volume—affects the other two.

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**P1V1 = P2V2 where P = pressure and V = volume**

SECTION13.1 The Gas Laws Boyle's Law Boyle’s law * P1V1 = P2V2 where P = pressure and V = volume

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**The Gas Laws Charles's Law**

SECTION13.1 The Gas Laws Charles's Law As temperature increases, so does the volume of gas when the amount of gas and pressure do not change. Kinetic-molecular theory explains this property.

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SECTION13.1 The Gas Laws Charles's Law (cont.)

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**The Gas Laws Charles's Law (cont.) Absolute zero *. Charles’s law ***

SECTION13.1 The Gas Laws Charles's Law (cont.) Absolute zero *. Charles’s law *

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SECTION13.1 The Gas Laws Gay-Lussac's Law Gay-Lussac’s law *

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**Gay-Lussac's Law (cont.)**

SECTION13.1 The Gas Laws Gay-Lussac's Law (cont.)

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SECTION13.1 The Gas Laws The Combined Gas Law The combined gas law *.

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**The Combined Gas Law (cont.)**

SECTION13.1 The Gas Laws The Combined Gas Law (cont.)

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SECTION13.2 The Ideal Gas Law Relate number of particles and volume using Avogadro’s principle. Relate the amount of gas present to its pressure, temperature, and volume using the ideal gas law. Compare the properties of real and ideal gases. mole: an SI base unit used to measure the amount of a substance; the amount of a pure substance that contains 6.02 × 1023 representative particles

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**The Ideal Gas Law Avogadro’s principle molar volume**

SECTION13.2 The Ideal Gas Law Avogadro’s principle molar volume ideal gas constant (R) ideal gas law The ideal gas law relates the number of particles to pressure, temperature, and volume.

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**The Ideal Gas Law Avogadro's Principle Avogadro’s principle ***

SECTION13.2 The Ideal Gas Law Avogadro's Principle Avogadro’s principle *

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**Avogadro's Principle (cont.)**

SECTION13.2 The Ideal Gas Law Avogadro's Principle (cont.) The molar volume of a gas is the volume 1 mol occupies at 0.00°C and 1.00 atm of pressure. 0.00°C and 1.00 atm are called standard temperature and pressure (STP). At STP, 1 mol of gas occupies 22.4 L.

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**The Ideal Gas Law The Ideal Gas Law**

SECTION13.2 The Ideal Gas Law The Ideal Gas Law Ideal gas particles occupy a negligible volume and are far enough apart to exert minimal attractive or repulsive forces on each other. Combined gas law to ideal gas law

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**The Ideal Gas Law (cont.)**

SECTION13.2 The Ideal Gas Law The Ideal Gas Law (cont.) The ideal gas constant is represented by R and is L•atm/mol•K when pressure is in atmospheres. The ideal gas law *

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**The Ideal Gas Law (cont.)**

SECTION13.2 The Ideal Gas Law The Ideal Gas Law (cont.)

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**The Ideal Gas Law—Molar Mass and Density**

SECTION13.2 The Ideal Gas Law The Ideal Gas Law—Molar Mass and Density Molar mass and the ideal gas law

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**The Ideal Gas Law—Molar Mass and Density (cont.)**

SECTION13.2 The Ideal Gas Law The Ideal Gas Law—Molar Mass and Density (cont.) Density and the ideal gas law

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**Real Versus Ideal Gases**

SECTION13.2 The Ideal Gas Law Real Versus Ideal Gases Ideal gases follow the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory. Characteristics of ideal gases: There are no intermolecular attractive or repulsive forces between particles or with their containers. The particles are in constant random motion. Collisions are perfectly elastic. No gas is truly ideal, but most behave as ideal gases at a wide range of temperatures and pressures.

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**Real Versus Ideal Gases (cont.)**

SECTION13.2 The Ideal Gas Law Real Versus Ideal Gases (cont.) Real gases *. Polar molecules have larger attractive forces between particles. Polar gases do not behave as ideal gases. Large nonpolar gas particles occupy more space and deviate more from ideal gases.

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SECTION13.3 Gas Stoichiometry Determine volume ratios for gaseous reactants and products by using coefficients from chemical equations. Apply gas laws to calculate amounts of gaseous reactants and products in a chemical reaction. coefficient: the number written in front of a reactant or product in a chemical equation, which tells the smallest number of particles of the substance involved in the reaction When gases react, the coefficients in the balanced chemical equation represent both molar amounts and relative volumes.

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**Stoichiometry of Reactions Involving Gases**

SECTION13.3 Gas Stoichiometry Stoichiometry of Reactions Involving Gases The gas laws can be applied to calculate the stoichiometry of reactions in which gases are reactants or products. 2H2(g) + O2(g) → 2H2O(g) 2 mol H2 reacts with 1 mol O2 to produce 2 mol water vapor.

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**Stoichiometry and Volume-Volume Problems**

SECTION13.3 Gas Stoichiometry Stoichiometry and Volume-Volume Problems Coefficients in a balanced equation represent volume ratios for gases.

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**Stoichiometry and Volume-Mass Problems**

SECTION13.3 Gas Stoichiometry Stoichiometry and Volume-Mass Problems A balanced chemical equation allows you to find ratios for only moles and gas volumes, not for masses. All masses given must be converted to moles or volumes before being used as part of a ratio.

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**The Gas Laws Key Concepts**

SECTION13.1 The Gas Laws Study Guide Key Concepts Boyle’s law states that the volume of a fixed amount of gas is inversely proportional to its pressure at constant temperature. P1V1 = P2V2 Charles’s law states that the volume of a fixed amount of gas is directly proportional to its kelvin temperature at constant pressure.

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**The Gas Laws Key Concepts**

SECTION13.1 The Gas Laws Study Guide Key Concepts Gay-Lussac’s law states that the pressure of a fixed amount of gas is directly proportional to its kelvin temperature at constant volume. The combined gas law relates pressure, temperature, and volume in a single statement.

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**The Ideal Gas Law Key Concepts**

SECTION13.2 The Ideal Gas Law Study Guide Key Concepts Avogadro’s principle states that equal volumes of gases at the same pressure and temperature contain equal numbers of particles. The ideal gas law relates the amount of a gas present to its pressure, temperature, and volume PV = nRT

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**The Ideal Gas Law Key Concepts**

SECTION13.2 The Ideal Gas Law Study Guide Key Concepts The ideal gas law can be used to find molar mass if the mass of the gas is known, or the density of the gas if its molar mass is known. At very high pressures and very low temperatures, real gases behave differently than ideal gases.

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**Gas Stoichiometry Key Concepts**

SECTION13.3 Gas Stoichiometry Study Guide Key Concepts The coefficients in a balanced chemical equation specify volume ratios for gaseous reactants and products. The gas laws can be used along with balanced chemical equations to calculate the amount of a gaseous reactant or product in a reaction.

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