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Chapter 13: Gases CHEMISTRY Matter and Change. Section 13.1The Gas LawsThe Gas Laws Section 13.2 The Ideal Gas LawThe Ideal Gas Law Section 13.3Gas StoichiometryGas.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13: Gases CHEMISTRY Matter and Change. Section 13.1The Gas LawsThe Gas Laws Section 13.2 The Ideal Gas LawThe Ideal Gas Law Section 13.3Gas StoichiometryGas."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 13: Gases CHEMISTRY Matter and Change

2 Section 13.1The Gas LawsThe Gas Laws Section 13.2 The Ideal Gas LawThe Ideal Gas Law Section 13.3Gas StoichiometryGas Stoichiometry Exit CHAPTER 13 Table Of Contents Click a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.

3 State the relationships among pressure, temperature, and volume of a constant amount of gas. scientific law: describes a relationship in nature that is supported by many experiments Apply the gas laws to problems involving the pressure, temperature, and volume of a constant amount of gas. SECTION 13.1 The Gas Laws

4 Boyle’s law absolute zero Charles’s law Gay-Lussac’s law combined gas law For a fixed amount of gas, a change in one variable—pressure, temperature, or volume—affects the other two. SECTION 13.1 The Gas Laws

5 Boyle's Law Boyle’s law * P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 where P = pressure and V = volume SECTION 13.1 The Gas Laws

6 Charles's Law As temperature increases, so does the volume of gas when the amount of gas and pressure do not change. Kinetic-molecular theory explains this property. SECTION 13.1 The Gas Laws

7 Charles's Law (cont.) SECTION 13.1 The Gas Laws

8 Absolute zero *. Charles’s law * SECTION 13.1 The Gas Laws Charles's Law (cont.)

9 Gay-Lussac's Law Gay-Lussac’s law * SECTION 13.1 The Gas Laws

10 Gay-Lussac's Law (cont.) SECTION 13.1 The Gas Laws

11 The Combined Gas Law The combined gas law *. SECTION 13.1 The Gas Laws

12 The Combined Gas Law (cont.) SECTION 13.1 The Gas Laws

13 Relate number of particles and volume using Avogadro’s principle. mole: an SI base unit used to measure the amount of a substance; the amount of a pure substance that contains 6.02 × representative particles Relate the amount of gas present to its pressure, temperature, and volume using the ideal gas law. Compare the properties of real and ideal gases. SECTION 13.2 The Ideal Gas Law

14 Avogadro’s principle molar volume ideal gas constant (R) ideal gas law The ideal gas law relates the number of particles to pressure, temperature, and volume. SECTION 13.2 The Ideal Gas Law

15 Avogadro's Principle Avogadro’s principle * SECTION 13.2 The Ideal Gas Law

16 Avogadro's Principle (cont.) The molar volume of a gas is the volume 1 mol occupies at 0.00°C and 1.00 atm of pressure. 0.00°C and 1.00 atm are called standard temperature and pressure (STP). At STP, 1 mol of gas occupies 22.4 L. SECTION 13.2 The Ideal Gas Law

17 Ideal gas particles occupy a negligible volume and are far enough apart to exert minimal attractive or repulsive forces on each other. Combined gas law to ideal gas law SECTION 13.2 The Ideal Gas Law

18 The Ideal Gas Law (cont.) The ideal gas constant is represented by R and is Latm/molK when pressure is in atmospheres. The ideal gas law * SECTION 13.2 The Ideal Gas Law

19 The Ideal Gas Law (cont.) SECTION 13.2 The Ideal Gas Law

20 The Ideal Gas Law—Molar Mass and Density Molar mass and the ideal gas law SECTION 13.2 The Ideal Gas Law

21 The Ideal Gas Law—Molar Mass and Density (cont.) Density and the ideal gas law SECTION 13.2 The Ideal Gas Law

22 Real Versus Ideal Gases Ideal gases follow the assumptions of the kinetic- molecular theory. Characteristics of ideal gases: –There are no intermolecular attractive or repulsive forces between particles or with their containers. –The particles are in constant random motion. –Collisions are perfectly elastic. –No gas is truly ideal, but most behave as ideal gases at a wide range of temperatures and pressures. SECTION 13.2 The Ideal Gas Law

23 Real Versus Ideal Gases (cont.) Real gases *. Polar molecules have larger attractive forces between particles. Polar gases do not behave as ideal gases. Large nonpolar gas particles occupy more space and deviate more from ideal gases. SECTION 13.2 The Ideal Gas Law

24 Determine volume ratios for gaseous reactants and products by using coefficients from chemical equations. coefficient: the number written in front of a reactant or product in a chemical equation, which tells the smallest number of particles of the substance involved in the reaction Apply gas laws to calculate amounts of gaseous reactants and products in a chemical reaction. When gases react, the coefficients in the balanced chemical equation represent both molar amounts and relative volumes. SECTION 13.3 Gas Stoichiometry

25 Stoichiometry of Reactions Involving Gases The gas laws can be applied to calculate the stoichiometry of reactions in which gases are reactants or products. 2H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) → 2H 2 O(g) 2 mol H 2 reacts with 1 mol O 2 to produce 2 mol water vapor. SECTION 13.3 Gas Stoichiometry

26 Stoichiometry and Volume-Volume Problems Coefficients in a balanced equation represent volume ratios for gases. SECTION 13.3 Gas Stoichiometry

27 Stoichiometry and Volume-Mass Problems A balanced chemical equation allows you to find ratios for only moles and gas volumes, not for masses. All masses given must be converted to moles or volumes before being used as part of a ratio. SECTION 13.3 Gas Stoichiometry

28 Key Concepts Boyle’s law states that the volume of a fixed amount of gas is inversely proportional to its pressure at constant temperature. P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 Charles’s law states that the volume of a fixed amount of gas is directly proportional to its kelvin temperature at constant pressure. SECTION 13.1 The Gas Laws Study Guide

29 Key Concepts Gay-Lussac’s law states that the pressure of a fixed amount of gas is directly proportional to its kelvin temperature at constant volume. The combined gas law relates pressure, temperature, and volume in a single statement. SECTION 13.1 The Gas Laws Study Guide

30 Key Concepts Avogadro’s principle states that equal volumes of gases at the same pressure and temperature contain equal numbers of particles. The ideal gas law relates the amount of a gas present to its pressure, temperature, and volume. PV = nRT SECTION 13.2 The Ideal Gas Law Study Guide

31 Key Concepts The ideal gas law can be used to find molar mass if the mass of the gas is known, or the density of the gas if its molar mass is known. At very high pressures and very low temperatures, real gases behave differently than ideal gases. SECTION 13.2 The Ideal Gas Law Study Guide

32 Key Concepts The coefficients in a balanced chemical equation specify volume ratios for gaseous reactants and products. The gas laws can be used along with balanced chemical equations to calculate the amount of a gaseous reactant or product in a reaction. SECTION 13.3 Gas Stoichiometry Study Guide


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