2Table Of Contents Section 13.1 The Gas Laws CHAPTER13Table Of ContentsSection The Gas LawsSection The Ideal Gas LawSection Gas StoichiometryClick a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.Exit
3SECTION13.1The Gas LawsState the relationships among pressure, temperature, and volume of a constant amount of gas.Apply the gas laws to problems involving the pressure, temperature, and volume of a constant amount of gas.scientific law: describes a relationship in nature that is supported by many experiments
4The Gas Laws Boyle’s law absolute zero Charles’s law Gay-Lussac’s law SECTION13.1The Gas LawsBoyle’s lawabsolute zeroCharles’s lawGay-Lussac’s lawcombined gas lawFor a fixed amount of gas, a change in one variable—pressure, temperature, or volume—affects the other two.
5P1V1 = P2V2 where P = pressure and V = volume SECTION13.1The Gas LawsBoyle's LawBoyle’s law *P1V1 = P2V2 where P = pressure and V = volume
6The Gas Laws Charles's Law SECTION13.1The Gas LawsCharles's LawAs temperature increases, so does the volume of gas when the amount of gas and pressure do not change.Kinetic-molecular theory explains this property.
8The Gas Laws Charles's Law (cont.) Absolute zero *. Charles’s law * SECTION13.1The Gas LawsCharles's Law (cont.)Absolute zero *.Charles’s law *
9SECTION13.1The Gas LawsGay-Lussac's LawGay-Lussac’s law *
10Gay-Lussac's Law (cont.) SECTION13.1The Gas LawsGay-Lussac's Law (cont.)
11SECTION13.1The Gas LawsThe Combined Gas LawThe combined gas law *.
12The Combined Gas Law (cont.) SECTION13.1The Gas LawsThe Combined Gas Law (cont.)
13SECTION13.2The Ideal Gas LawRelate number of particles and volume using Avogadro’s principle.Relate the amount of gas present to its pressure, temperature, and volume using the ideal gas law.Compare the properties of real and ideal gases.mole: an SI base unit used to measure the amount of a substance; the amount of a pure substance that contains 6.02 × 1023 representative particles
14The Ideal Gas Law Avogadro’s principle molar volume SECTION13.2The Ideal Gas LawAvogadro’s principlemolar volumeideal gas constant (R)ideal gas lawThe ideal gas law relates the number of particles to pressure, temperature, and volume.
15The Ideal Gas Law Avogadro's Principle Avogadro’s principle * SECTION13.2The Ideal Gas LawAvogadro's PrincipleAvogadro’s principle *
16Avogadro's Principle (cont.) SECTION13.2The Ideal Gas LawAvogadro's Principle (cont.)The molar volume of a gas is the volume 1 mol occupies at 0.00°C and 1.00 atm of pressure.0.00°C and 1.00 atm are called standard temperature and pressure (STP).At STP, 1 mol of gas occupies 22.4 L.
17The Ideal Gas Law The Ideal Gas Law SECTION13.2The Ideal Gas LawThe Ideal Gas LawIdeal gas particles occupy a negligible volume and are far enough apart to exert minimal attractive or repulsive forces on each other.Combined gas law to ideal gas law
18The Ideal Gas Law (cont.) SECTION13.2The Ideal Gas LawThe Ideal Gas Law (cont.)The ideal gas constant is represented by R and is L•atm/mol•K when pressure is in atmospheres.The ideal gas law *
19The Ideal Gas Law (cont.) SECTION13.2The Ideal Gas LawThe Ideal Gas Law (cont.)
20The Ideal Gas Law—Molar Mass and Density SECTION13.2The Ideal Gas LawThe Ideal Gas Law—Molar Mass and DensityMolar mass and the ideal gas law
21The Ideal Gas Law—Molar Mass and Density (cont.) SECTION13.2The Ideal Gas LawThe Ideal Gas Law—Molar Mass and Density (cont.)Density and the ideal gas law
22Real Versus Ideal Gases SECTION13.2The Ideal Gas LawReal Versus Ideal GasesIdeal gases follow the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory.Characteristics of ideal gases:There are no intermolecular attractive or repulsive forces between particles or with their containers.The particles are in constant random motion.Collisions are perfectly elastic.No gas is truly ideal, but most behave as ideal gases at a wide range of temperatures and pressures.
23Real Versus Ideal Gases (cont.) SECTION13.2The Ideal Gas LawReal Versus Ideal Gases (cont.)Real gases *.Polar molecules have larger attractive forces between particles.Polar gases do not behave as ideal gases.Large nonpolar gas particles occupy more space and deviate more from ideal gases.
24SECTION13.3Gas StoichiometryDetermine volume ratios for gaseous reactants and products by using coefficients from chemical equations.Apply gas laws to calculate amounts of gaseous reactants and products in a chemical reaction.coefficient: the number written in front of a reactant or product in a chemical equation, which tells the smallest number of particles of the substance involved in the reactionWhen gases react, the coefficients in the balanced chemical equation represent both molar amounts and relative volumes.
25Stoichiometry of Reactions Involving Gases SECTION13.3Gas StoichiometryStoichiometry of Reactions Involving GasesThe gas laws can be applied to calculate the stoichiometry of reactions in which gases are reactants or products.2H2(g) + O2(g) → 2H2O(g)2 mol H2 reacts with 1 mol O2 to produce 2 mol water vapor.
26Stoichiometry and Volume-Volume Problems SECTION13.3Gas StoichiometryStoichiometry and Volume-Volume ProblemsCoefficients in a balanced equation represent volume ratios for gases.
27Stoichiometry and Volume-Mass Problems SECTION13.3Gas StoichiometryStoichiometry and Volume-Mass ProblemsA balanced chemical equation allows you to find ratios for only moles and gas volumes, not for masses.All masses given must be converted to moles or volumes before being used as part of a ratio.
28The Gas Laws Key Concepts SECTION13.1The Gas LawsStudy GuideKey ConceptsBoyle’s law states that the volume of a fixed amount of gas is inversely proportional to its pressure at constant temperature.P1V1 = P2V2Charles’s law states that the volume of a fixed amount of gas is directly proportional to its kelvin temperature at constant pressure.
29The Gas Laws Key Concepts SECTION13.1The Gas LawsStudy GuideKey ConceptsGay-Lussac’s law states that the pressure of a fixed amount of gas is directly proportional to its kelvin temperature at constant volume.The combined gas law relates pressure, temperature, and volume in a single statement.
30The Ideal Gas Law Key Concepts SECTION13.2The Ideal Gas LawStudy GuideKey ConceptsAvogadro’s principle states that equal volumes of gases at the same pressure and temperature contain equal numbers of particles.The ideal gas law relates the amount of a gas present to its pressure, temperature, and volume PV = nRT
31The Ideal Gas Law Key Concepts SECTION13.2The Ideal Gas LawStudy GuideKey ConceptsThe ideal gas law can be used to find molar mass if the mass of the gas is known, or the density of the gas if its molar mass is known.At very high pressures and very low temperatures, real gases behave differently than ideal gases.
32Gas Stoichiometry Key Concepts SECTION13.3Gas StoichiometryStudy GuideKey ConceptsThe coefficients in a balanced chemical equation specify volume ratios for gaseous reactants and products.The gas laws can be used along with balanced chemical equations to calculate the amount of a gaseous reactant or product in a reaction.