Presentation on theme: "Refrigeration and Cryogenics Maciej Chorowski Faculty of Mechanical and Power Engineering."— Presentation transcript:
Refrigeration and Cryogenics Maciej Chorowski Faculty of Mechanical and Power Engineering
COEFFICIENT OF PERFORMANCE OF REFRIGERATION CYCLE The coefficient of performance is an index of performance of a thermodynamic cycle or a thermal system. Because the COP can be greater than 1, COP is used instead of thermal efficiency. The coefficient of performance can be used for the analysis of the following: A refrigerator that is used to produce a refrigeration effect only, that is, COP ref A heat pump in which the heating effect is produced by rejected heat COP hp A heat recovery system in which both the refrigeration effect and the heating effect are used at thesame time, COP hr
Refrigeration processes of a vapor compression refrigerating system Evaporation. In this process, the refrigerant evaporates at a lower temperature than that of its surroundings, absorbing its latent heat of vaporization. Superheating. Saturated refrigerant vapor is usually superheated to ensure that liquid refrigerant does not flow into the compressor. Compression. Refrigerant is compressed to a higher pressure and temperature for condensation. Condensation. Gaseous refrigerant is condensed to liquid form by being desuperheated, then condensed, and finally subcooled, transferring its latent heat of condensation to a coolant. Throttling and expansion. The higher-pressure liquid refrigerant is throttled to the lower evaporating pressure and is ready for evaporation.
MULTISTAGE VAPOR COMPRESSION SYSTEMS Two-stage compound system with a flash cooler: (a) schematic diagram; (b) refrigeration cycle.
MULTISTAGE VAPOR COMPRESSION SYSTEMS - interstage pressure Interstage pressure is usually set so that the compression ratio at each stage is nearly the same for higher COPs. For a two-stage compound system, interstage pressure pi, psia (kPa abs.), can be calculated as: For a multistage vapor compression system with z stages, the compression ratio R com for each stage can be calculated as where p con condensing pressure, psia (kPa abs.) p ev evaporating pressure, psia (kPa abs.)
MULTISTAGE VAPOR COMPRESSION SYSTEMS Heat balance of entering and leaving refrigerants in a flash cooler and at the mixing point: (a) in the flash cooler; (b) at the mixing point 3 before entering the second-stage impeller.
MULTISTAGE VAPOR COMPRESSION SYSTEMS – Coefficient of Performance
THREE-STAGE COMPOUND SYSTEM WITH A TWO-STAGE FLASH COOLER
THREE-STAGE COMPOUND SYSTEM WITH A TWO-STAGE FLASH COOLER - COP
TWO-STAGE COMPOUND SYSTEM WITH A VERTICAL INTERCOOLER (ammonia)
Cascade system (different refrigerants, equipment, oil)