Presentation on theme: "1 Two-phase and gaseous cryogenic avalanche detectors based on GEMs A. Bondar, A. Buzulutskov, A. Grebenuk, D. Pavlyuchenko, R. Snopkov, Y. Tikhonov Budker."— Presentation transcript:
1 Two-phase and gaseous cryogenic avalanche detectors based on GEMs A. Bondar, A. Buzulutskov, A. Grebenuk, D. Pavlyuchenko, R. Snopkov, Y. Tikhonov Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk Outline - Motivation: coherent neutrino scattering, dark matter search, solar neutrino detection, medical applications - Gaseous cryogenic avalanche detectors above 78 K - Two-phase avalanche detectors, in Ar, Kr and Xe - Cryogenic avalanche detectors at low T, below 78 K, in He and Ne - Summary
2 Motivation: cryogenic detectors for coherent neutrino scattering, dark matter and solar neutrino detection Two-phase Xe detectors for dark matter search ZEPLIN II-IV [UK Dark Matter Search Collaboration], XENON [Aprile et al. Eprint astro- ph/ ] Two-phase He or Ne detectors for solar neutrino detection using charge readout Columbia Univ (Nevis Lab) & BNL, Two-phase Ar detectors for dark matter search using thick GEM readout Rubbia et al., Eprint hep- ph/ Two-phase or high-pressure Ar or Xe detectors for coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering Hagmann & Bernstein, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 51(2004)2151; Barbeau et al., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 50(2003)1285
3 Motivation: cryogenic two-phase detectors for medical applications LXe GEM-based two-phase Xe or Kr avalanche detector for PET - Solving parallax problem - Superior spatial resolution if to use GEM readout Budker Institute: CRDF grant RP (2003) GEM-based two-phase Ar or Kr avalanche detector for digital radiography with CCD readout - Robust and cheap readout - Thin (few mm) liquid layer is enough to absorb X- rays - Primary scintillation detection is not needed Budker Institute: INTAS grant (2005), Presented at SNIC06, Two-phase Xe detector for PET Chen & Bolozdynya, US patent (1997)
4 Principles of two-phase avalanche detectors based on GEMs - Primary ionization (and scintillation) signal is weak: of the order of 1, 10, 100 and 500 keV for coherent neutrino, dark matter, solar neutrino and PET respectively Signal amplification, namely electron avalanching in pure noble gases at cryogenic temperatures is needed - Detection of both ionization and scintillation signals in liquid might be desirable, the latter to provide fast signal coincidences in PET and to reject background in neutrino and dark matter detection - Electron avalanching at low temperatures has a fundamental interest itself The concept of two-phase (liquid-gas) or high pressure cryogenic avalanche detector using multi-GEM multiplier, with CsI photocathode on top of first GEM 1. Buzulutskov et al., First results from cryogenic avalanche detectors based on GEMs, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 50(2003) Bondar et al., Cryogenic avalanche detectors based on GEMs, NIM A 524(2004) Bondar et al., Further studies of two-phase Kr detectors based on GEMs, NIM A 548(2005) Buzulutskov et al., GEM operation in He and Ne at low T, NIM A 548(2005) Bondar et al., Two-phase Ar and Xe avalanche detectors based on GEMs, NIM A 556(2006) Bondar et al., A two-phase Ar avalanche detector operated in a single electron counting mode, submitted to JINST
5 Unique advantage of GEMs and other hole-type structures: high gain operation in “pure” noble gases 3GEM operation in noble gases at high pressures at room T - In heavy noble gases: high gain (~10 4 ) operation at 1 am and fast gain decrease at higher pressures. - In light noble gases: high gain (~10 5 ) operation at high pressures Budker Inst: NIM A 493(2002)8; 494(2002)148 Coimbra & Weizmann Inst: NIM A 535(2004)341 3GEM operation in Ar-based noble gas mixtures at 1 atm and room T - Rather high gains, exceeding 10 5, are reached Budker Inst & Weizmann Inst & CERN: NIM A 443(2000)164 GEM: Gas Electron Multiplier [Sauli, NIM A 386(1997)531]
6 Gaseous cryogenic avalanche detectors based on GEMs 3GEM operation at cryogenic T in different gases - Rather high gains are reached at cryogenic T: the maximum gain exceeds 10 5 in He and 10 4 in Ar, Kr and Xe+CH 4 3GEM operation at cryogenic T at different fluxes - No charging-up effects were observed in He, even at fluxes as high as 10 6 e/mm 2 s Experimental setup - Operated in He, Ar, Kr and Xe l cryogenic chamber
7 Two-phase avalanche detectors based on GEMs: experimental setup - Developed at Budker Institute l cryogenic chamber - Operated in Ar, Kr and Xe - Liquid thickness 3-11 mm - Liquid purity: electron drift path about 10 mm in Ar, 3 mm in Kr and 1 mm in Xe - 3GEM+PCB assembly inside - Irradiated with pulsed X-rays, beta-particles and gamma-rays Liquid layer thickness 3-12 mm Liquid-gas mode Solid-gas mode Gaseous mode Cathode gap capacitance as a function of pressure in Xe during cooling-heating procedures Gaseous mode
9 Two-phase avalanche detector: experimental setup 10 liter cryogenic chamber: under construction
10 Two-phase avalanche detectors: electron emission through liquid/gas interface - Electron emission from liquid into gas phase has a threshold behavior - Electric field for efficient emission: in Ar by a factor of 2-3 lower than that in Kr and Xe Emission characteristics in Ar and Kr - Anode pulse-height as a function of electric field in the liquid induced by beta-particles: in Ar – in 2 GEM at gain 1500; in Kr – in 3 GEM at gain 250. Emission characteristics in Xe - Anode pulse-height as a function of electric field in liquid Xe induced by pulsed X-rays, in 3 GEM at gain 80.
11 Two-phase avalanche detectors: gain characteristics - Electron avalanching in saturated vapor does not differ from that of normal gas in general - Gain and voltages are similar to gaseous mode at equal gas densities - However, in Kr and Xe the maximum gain in two-phase mode is substantially lower than that in gaseous mode at cryogenic T - Two-phase mode, 3 GEM, pulse counting mode - In Ar: rather high gains are reached, of the order of 10 4, - In Kr and Xe: moderate gains are reached, about 10 3 and 200 respectively Gaseous mode Two-phase mode - In Xe: adding CH 4 does not help to increase the gain - Just operation in two-phase mode imposes a principal limit on the maximum gain?
12 Two-phase Kr and Xe avalanche detectors: towards PET applications - Two-phase Kr, 3 mm liquid layer - 3GEM at gain Almost no background - GEM-BGO signal delay is t~2 s: corresponds to electron drift time in liquid and gaseous Kr in the gap and between GEMs Anode signals from 3GEM induced by 511 keV collinear - quanta from 22 Na in coincidences with BGO counter, triggered by GEM signal - Two-phase Xe, 3 mm liquid layer - 3GEM at gain 80
13 Two-phase Ar avalanche detector: pulse shape and energy resolution - Two-phase Ar, 3 GEM, 60 keV gamma-rays from 241 Am, gain ~ Distinct peaks are seen - Effect of extraction field is well pronounced - Energy resolution, 17%, is defined presumably by pressure variations and impurities: expected to be improved in future detectors - Two-phase Ar, 3 GEM, 60 keV gamma-rays from 241 Am, gain 700 (top) and 2500 (bottom) - At higher gains the primary signal is accompanied by secondary signal: presumably due to photon feedback between GEMs
14 Two-phase Ar avalanche detector: single electron counting mode - 1 cm liquid layer, 3GEM, pulsed X-rays To obtain single electron counting mode: - Reversing drift field to suppress ionization signal - Detecting photoemission signal from GEM1 electrode acting as a photocathode, induced by scintillation signal - Decreasing X-ray intensity to have: a) pulse-height curve slope does not change any more b) detection efficiency is below 1
15 Single electron pulse-height spectra - At gain 6000 and 17000, in 3GEM+PCB - Spectrum shape is exponential: typical for electron avalanching in gas media Pulse-height spectra for single and 1.4 electron - At gain 40000, in 3GEM. - Single and two electron events would be well distinguished by spectra slopes Two-phase Ar avalanche detector: single electron counting mode Rather high GEM gains (tenths of thousands) and stable operation obtained in two-phase Ar allow one to operate in a single electron counting mode, corresponding to sensitivity to deposited energy of as low as a few tens of eV Electronic noise spectrum
16 -Two-phase Ar, 3 GEM, gain ~ MeV neutrons from 252 Cf triggered by gamma-rays - Coincidence peak between BGO counter (due to gamma-rays) and two-phase Ar avalanche detector (due to mostly neutron induced nuclear recoils) is distinctly seen - Pulse-height spectrum is due to neutron scattering induced nuclear recoils + gamma-ray background Nuclear recoil spectrum simulation for 2 MeV neutrons [Majakowsky, Acta Phys. Pol. B 37(2006)2179] Two-phase Ar avalanche detector: nuclear recoil signals induced by neutron scattering
17 Two-phase Ar avalanche detector: nuclear recoil signals induced by neutron scattering Neutron scattering induced pulse-height spectrum compared to those of single electrons and 60 keV gamma rays, in 3GEM in two-phase Ar at gain of ~4000
18 - Two-phase Ar, 3GEM, gain 500 (pulsed X-rays) and 4000 (60 keV gamma-rays), liquid thickness 11 mm - Relatively stable operation for 5 hour and 1 day. - Gain increase during first h is presumably correlated to temperature gradient decrease due to stabilization process Two-phase Ar avalanche detector: stability of operation
19 Two-phase Kr and Xe avalanche detectors: stability of operation - Two-phase Kr, 3GEM, gain 120, beta-particles - Relatively stable operation for 3 hours - Two-phase Xe, 3GEM, gain 80, liquid thickness 3 mm - Relatively stable operation for 0.5 hour when irradiated with beta-particles - Short-term (few sec) instabilities when irradiated with pulsed X-rays - On the other hand, Lightfoot et al NIM A 554 (2005) 266 observed that signal disappeared in ~10 min in two-phase Xe+CH 4 with Micromegas readout In Ar and Kr: possibility for stable GEM operation in avalanche mode in saturated vapor is confirmed In Xe: further studies are needed
20 Two-phase avalanche detectors: secondary effects (not fully understood) Charging-up effects? In two-phase Kr in current mode, secondary effects arise at higher gains: current increases with voltage faster than exponentially. They are not observed in a pulse-counting mode. Most probably they are due to ion feedback effects. Ion feedback effects? Sometimes, in two-phase Ar at larger LAr thickness (8 mm), secondary effects take place at higher extraction fields and gains: the primary signal is periodically changed, being accompanied by delayed secondary signal. Possible interpretation: field screening by ion space charge, accumulated in the liquid layer due to very low ion drift velocity (~1cm/sec) and high ion feedback current from GEMs. High rate operation in two-phase avalanche detectors, in particular in PET, might be under question?
21 Two-phase avalanche detectors with two-phase photoelectric gates Buzulutskov and Bondar, Electric and photoelectric gates for ion feedback suppression in multi-GEM structures, JINST 1 (2006) P08006
22 GEM structures can successfully operate at low T, even down to 2 K. Stable and effective GEM operation was achieved in two-phase Ar at high gains, exceeding 10 4, including in a single electron counting mode. These results are very promising for applications in coherent neutrino- nucleus scattering and dark matter search experiments. In two-phase Kr and Xe however the maximum GEM gains are limited, not exceeding 1000 and 200 respectively. In two-phase Xe in addition, the operation stability is still under question. For the time being, possible applications are limited to PET and digital radiography. Conclusions
23 Physics of electron avalanching at low T: - Ionization coefficients at low T - Associative and Penning ionization at low T - Avalanching in saturated vapor - Electron and ion mobility at low T Physics of two-phase media: - Electron emission from liquid (solid) into gas phase - Ion transport through phase interface - Charging-up effects in the bulk liquid and at the phase interface Physics of ion clusters at low T: - Ion clustering - Mobility of ion clusters Physics of electron bubbles at low T: - Measuring electron bubble charge - Quantum entanglement with electron bubbles Outlook: physics of Cryogenic Avalanche Detectors
24 Cryogenic avalanche detectors at low T In this field we collaborate with J. Dodd, R. Galea, Y. Ju, M. Leltchouk, W. J. Willis Columbia University (Nevis Lab) V. Radeka, P. Rehak, V. Tcherniatine BNL
25 Cryogenic avalanche detectors at low T: experimental setup Experimental setup: - Developed at Columbia University (Nevis Lab) & BNL - Operated in He and Ne l cryogenic chamber - Several UV windows - 3GEM inside - Gas filling through LN 2 or LHe reservoir
26 Gaseous cryogenic avalanche detector at low T: gain and pulse shape characteristics in He In He: - High gains in 3GEM at T > 78 K - Operation voltages increased when changing the cooling medium in reservoir - Below 30 K, 3GEM could not work at all; only 2GEM and 1GEM could operate in avalanche mode - At K maximum gain is only few tens at 0.5 g/l and drops further at higher densities In Ne: - High gains in 3GEM at room T - However at cryogenic T, GEMs could not work at all At low T, below 4 K, the primary signal is accompanied by secondary signal with width reaching few ms. Effect of metastable states?
27 Solution of the gain drop problem at low T: using Ne+H 2 Penning mixture Gains in Ne+H 2 at K - at density 4 and 9 g/l, the latter corresponding to saturated vapor density at Ne boiling point - Rather high gains are observed, as high as 2*10 4. The maximum gains are not reached here! Gains in Ne+H 2 at K - at density 9 g/l [ Galea et al., Eprint arxiv.org/physics/ ] Ne forms Penning mixture with H 2 at low T: - H 2 boiling point (20 K) is below that of Ne (27 K) - Energy of metastable Ne state exceeds H 2 ionization potential This is a solution of the gain drop problem at low T in Ne. Unfortunately, this does not work for two- phase He, since H 2 vapor pressure is too low at He boiling point (4.2 K)
28 High gain operation in He (and Ne) above 77 K is due to Penning effect in impurities? Ionization coefficients as a function of the electric field in dense He, obtained from 1GEM data, at K and 78 K. - He taken from bottle with quoted impurity content Compared to literature data at room T and low density Ionization coefficients for ultrapure He and He H 2, obtained from 2GEM data, at 78 K - He was additionally purified when filling the chamber (Oxisorb + getter) - Impurity content [ Galea et al., Eprint arxiv.org/physics/ ] Ionization coefficients for ultrapure He and He “purified” by low T (< 20 K) correspond to literature data. That means that the principal avalanche mechanisms at room and low T are the same (electron impact ionization). High gains observed in He and Ne above 78 K are most probably due to Penning effect in uncontrolled impurities.
29 In He and Ne, the problem of the gain drop at low T can be solved by using Penning mixtures of He+H 2 and Ne+H 2 : very high gains, exceeding 10 4, can be obtained in these mixtures at T>10 K. Most probably high gains obtained at higher T in “pure” He and Ne are achieved by Penning effect in impurities. These results open ways towards two-phase and high-pressure cryogenic detectors for solar neutrino and coherent neutrino scattering experiments. Conclusions 2