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Thrust into Space Maxwell W. Hunter, II. Newton’s 3rd Law of Motion Momentum is conserved, equation 1- 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Thrust into Space Maxwell W. Hunter, II. Newton’s 3rd Law of Motion Momentum is conserved, equation 1- 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Thrust into Space Maxwell W. Hunter, II

2 Newton’s 3rd Law of Motion Momentum is conserved, equation 1- 1

3 Force Force, equation 1-2 Weight, equation 1-3

4 Energy Kinetic energy, equation 1-4 Ratio of kinetic energy of gun to bullet, equation 1-5

5 Guns as Rockets Paris Gun, WW I Change in velocity, equation 1-6

6 Rocket Engines Thrust, equation 1-7

7 Rocket Nomenclature Figure 1-1

8 Fuel Consumption Specific impulse of engine, equation 1-8 Effective exhaust velocity, equation 1-9

9 Power Power expended, equation 1-10 Effective power, equation 1-11

10 Internal Energy Release Exit velocity, equation 1-12 Combustion temperature, equation 1-13 Velocity of molecule, equation 1-14

11 Rocket Energy Efficiency Figure 1-2

12 Nozzle Altitude Effect Figure 1-3

13 Nozzle Altitude Performance Figure 1-4

14 Pump Power Pump power, equation 1-15 Pump power for both propellants, equation 1-16

15 The Rocket Equation Change in velocity, equation 1-17 Impulsive velocity, equation 1-18

16 The Rocket Equation Figure 1-5

17 Useful Load Useful load, equation 1-19

18 The Rocket Equation Figure 1-6

19 Energy Efficiency Kinetic energy of useful load, equation 1-20 Total energy expended by exhaust, equation 1-21

20 External Energy Efficiency Figure 1-7

21 Effect of Initial Velocity Increase of kinetic energy of useful load, equation 1-22 Total kinetic energy expended, equation 1- 23

22 External Energy Efficiency Figure 1-8

23 Ballistics Flat earth, no drag From Newton’s Laws of Motion, equations in 2-1 Range vs. velocity, equation 2-2

24 Energy Potential energy, equation 2-3 Ratio of kinetic energy increase to initial kinetic energy, equation 2-4

25 Forces During Motor Burning Velocity loss due to gravity, equation 2-5 Figure 2-1

26 Airplane Lift/Drag Ratio Airplane energy, equation 2-6 Cruising efficiency, equation 2-7 Velocity equivalent of energy used, equation 2-8

27 Airplane Lift/Drag Ratio Figure 2-2

28 Automobile Lift/Drag Ratio Figure 2-3

29 Ship Lift/Drag Ratio Figure 2-4

30 Solid-Propellant Rockets Figure 2-5

31 Solid Rockets Acceleration of guns or rockets, equation 2- 9 Honest John Missile

32 Required Acceleration Figure 2-6

33 Four Decades of Development Figure 2-7

34 Theoretical Propellant Performance Vacuum ε = 40 Sea Level OxidizerFuel Mixture Ratio Specific Gravity I sp (sec) NH 4 ClO 4 20% Al H2O2H2O2 N2H4N2H N2O4N2O4 N2H4N2H O 2 ( cyro)Kerosene O 2 ( cyro)N2H4N2H

35 Elliptical Orbit Nomenclature Figure 3-1

36 Circular Orbits Gravity as a function of distance, equation 3-1 Velocity of satellite, equation 3-2 Period, equation 3-3 Period, equation 3-4

37 Potential Energy Potential energy, equation 3-5 Maximum potential energy, equation 3-6

38 Escape Velocity Escape velocity, equation 3-7

39 The Vis-Vita Law Kinetic and potential energy, equation 3-8 Conservation of angular momentum, equation 3-9 Perigee velocity vs. escape velocity at perigee, equation 3-10 Velocity, equation 3-11

40 The Vis-Vita Law Velocity and circular velocity, equation 3-12 Orbital period, equation 3-13

41 Optimum Ballistic Missile Trajectories Figure 3-2

42 Global Rocket Velocities Figure 3-3

43 Hohmann Transfer Figure 3-4

44 Velocities Required to Establish Orbit Figure 3-5 Potential energy and kinetic energy, equation 3-14

45 Planet Escape Velocities and Radii Planet Escape Velocity (feet/sec) Radius (Earth = 1.0) Earth36, Venus33, Pluto32, Mars16, Mercury13,

46 Satellite Escape Velocities and Radii Satellite (Planet) Escape Velocity (feet/sec) Radius (Earth = 1.0) Triton (Neptune)10, Ganymede (Jupiter)9, Titan (Saturn)8, Io (Jupiter)8, Moon (Earth)7, Callisto (Jupiter)7, Europa (Jupiter)6,

47 Gravity Losses Effective gravity, equation 3-15

48 Large, Solid Propellant Motors Figure 3-6

49 The Planets Orbital Data Planet Semi-Major Axis AU Perihelion AU Aphelion AU Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune

50 The Planets Orbital Data Mean Celestial Longitude Planet Off Ascending Node of Perihelion Epoch, 1/1/1996 Mercury 47.93°76.93°210.29° Venus °84.87° Earth °98.89° Mars 49.3°335.44°324.31° Jupiter °13.5°87.32° Saturn °91.5°347.57° Uranus 73.9°168.65°166.43° Neptune 131.4°53°230.02°

51 The Planets Orbital Data Inclination Planet Orbital to Ecliptic Equatorial to Orbit Mercury 7.00 Venus 3.39 Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune

52 The Planets Orbital Data Planet Orbital Velocity About Sun (ft/sec) Period of Revolution (years) Mercury 157, Venus 114, Earth 97, Mars 79, Jupiter 42, Saturn 31, Uranus 22, Neptune 17,

53 Solar System Data Jupiter’s Moons Diamete r (miles) Surfac e Gravit y Perio d (days ) Escape Velocity (fps) Io2, ,250 Europa1, ,900 Ganymed e 3, ,430 Callisto2, ,450

54 The Outer Solar System Figure 4-1

55 Hyperbolic Excess Velocity Vis-Viva Law, hyperbolic excess velocity, equation 4-1 Equation 4-2 Equation 4-3

56 Hyperbolic Excess Velocity Figure 4-2

57 Solar System Hyperbolic Excess Velocity Figure 4-3

58 Hohmann Transfer Velocities Figure 4-4

59 Hohmann Transfer Travel Time Figure 4-5

60 Synodic Period of Planets Synodic period, equation 4-4 Figure 4-6

61 Solar Probe Type Missions with Two Impulse Transfers Figure 4-7

62 Elastic Impact Analogy for the Use of Planetary Energy Figure 4-8

63 Use of Planetary Energy Weight of vehicle, equation 4-5 Equation 4-6

64 Planetary Swing- Around Angle Figure 4-9

65 Distance from Center of Sun (Astronomical Units) Solar Probe Velocity Requirements Figure 4-10

66 Out-of-Ecliptic Velocity Requirements Figure 4-11

67 Solar System Travel Times Figure 4-12

68 Planetary Arrival Velocities Figure 4-13

69 Planetary Capture Velocities Figure 4-14

70 Payload Velocity Requirements Figure 4-15

71 Selected Comets Comet Perihelio n (AU) Aphelion (AU) Period (years ) Perihelio n Time Encke Forbes D’Arrest Faye Halley

72 Earth-Mars Launch Windows Figure 4-16

73 Earth-Mars Launch Windows Figure 4-17

74 Round Trip Synodic Period Effects Figure 4-18

75 Theoretical Liquid Propellant Performance Equilibrium Flow Vacuum Sea Level OxidizerFuel Mixture Ratio Specific Gravity I sp OxygenHydrogen FluorineHydrogen FluorineAmmonia O2-DifluorideKerosene HydrazineDiborate Hydrazine Pentaboran e

76 High-Performance Chemical Rockets Figure 4-19

77 New Types of Engines Wall stress, equation 4-7 Engine chamber weight, equation 4-8

78 New Engine Types Figure 4-20

79 Nuclear Thermal Rockets Einstein’s famous equation 4-9 Kiwi-A rocket engine

80 Graphite Solid-Core Engine Figure 4-21

81 Isotopic Heat Sources Parent Isotope Half- Life (years ) Type of Decay Specific Power (watts/gm) Shieldin g Pure Fuel Compound Cesium β/γ Heavy Plutonium α Minor Curium α Moderate Polonium α141134Minor Cobalt β/γ Heavy

82 Nuclear Vehicle Shielding Comparison Figure 4-22

83 Required Fuel Weights for Single-Stage Space Launch Vehicles Figure 4-23

84 Heavy Velocity Rockets and Gravity Fields Travel time, equation 5-1 Minimum travel time in terms of inner and outer distance, equation 5-2 Maximum travel time, equation 5-3

85 Minimum Travel Times from Earth Including Braking Requirements Figure 5-1

86 Average Travel Times from Earth Including Braking Requirements Figure 5-2

87 Solar System Synodic Periods Figure 5-3

88 Travel Times Between Planets Figure 5-4

89 Escape with Low Acceleration Velocity required to escape, equation 5-4 For launch from circular orbit, equation 5-5

90 Total Velocity to Escape Figure 5-5

91 Heliocentric Velocity Requirements Time to generate velocity at constant acceleration, equation 5-6 Figure 5-6

92 Specific Impulse From Nuclear Reactions Figure 5-7

93 Typical Gaseous Core Engines Figure 5-8 Power output, equation 5-7

94 Cost of Nuclear Fission Fuel and Propellant Figure 5-9

95 Cooling Limitations Amount by which gaseous heating raises specific impulse, equation 5-8

96 Thrust/Weight Ratio of Gaseous Fission Engines Figure 5-10

97 Types of Electrical Rocket Thrusters Figure 5-11

98 Electric Rocket Performance Characteristic velocity, equation 5-9 For perfect efficiency, weight of power supply relates to weight of propellant, equation 5- 10

99 Electrical Rocket Performance Figure 5-12

100 Single-Stage Spaceship Fuel and Propellant Costs Figure 5-13

101 Transportation vs. Ammunition Re-Use Assumptions Figure 5-14

102 Spaceship Payload Capability Figure 5-15

103 Single-Stage Spaceship Fuel, Propellant, and Structure Costs Figure 5-16

104 Single-Stage Spaceship Fuel, Propellant, and Structure Costs Figure 5-17

105 Dose to Ground Observer from Gaseous Core Rockets Figure 5-18

106 Gaseous Fission Powered Spaceship Figure 5-19

107 Acceleration Distance Figure 5-20

108 The Near Stars Figure 6-1

109 The Galaxy Figure 6-2

110 Hypothetical Galactic Community Figure 6-3

111 Time Dilation Ship time, equation 6- 1

112 Interstellar Travel Time Dilation Effects Figure 6-4

113 Fusion Rockets Initial weight vs. final weight, equation 6-2 Rocket braking on arrival, equation 6-3

114 Fusion Starship Weight Ratio Figure 6-5

115 Fusion Starship Power Figure 6-6

116 Cost of Nuclear Rocket Fuel and Propellant Figure 6-7

117 Photon Rockets Effective exhaust velocity, equation 6-4 Relativistic rocket equation 6-5 Exhaust power of photon beam, equation 6-6

118 Starship Weight Ratio Figure 6-8

119 Mass Annihilation Rockets Mass annihilation rocket equation 6-7 Mass annihilation rocket braking equation 6-8

120 Starship Power Figure 6-9

121 Mass Annihilation Rockets Overall time dilation effect, equation 6-9 Relation between time dilation achieved and rocket weight, equation 6-10 Equation 6-11


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