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Human Physiology INTERACTIVE MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS The answers are provided. Explanations of why the alternatives are unsatisfactory are also offered.

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Presentation on theme: "Human Physiology INTERACTIVE MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS The answers are provided. Explanations of why the alternatives are unsatisfactory are also offered."— Presentation transcript:

1 Human Physiology INTERACTIVE MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS The answers are provided. Explanations of why the alternatives are unsatisfactory are also offered © D.G. Mackean

2 These multiple choice questions are similar to the ones set by the GCSE and IGCSE Examination Boards except that, in some cases, there may be more than one acceptable answer. For this reason, even if you select a correct answer at your first attempt, it is worth looking at all the alternatives (a) to see if there is a better answer and (b) to see why some of the alternatives are unacceptable Question 1

3 Iron is an important component of a balanced diet because it is needed mainly by … (a) the blood (b) the bones (c) the brain (d) the nerves Question 2

4 Yes Iron is an important component of haemoglobin, the red pigment which combines with oxygen in the red blood cells

5 No Iron is not specifically needed by the bones

6 No Iron is not specifically needed by the nerves

7 No Iron is not specifically needed by the brain

8 Question 2 Shortage of vitamin D in the diet of children can lead to … (a) poor night vision (b) anaemia (c) deformed bones (d) bleeding gums Question 3

9 No It is shortage of vitamin A (retinol) which is a cause of poor night vision, as well as reduced resistance to disease

10 No A shortage of iron can be one cause of anaemia

11 Yes A shortage of vitamin D (calciferol) causes defective incorporation of calcium into the bones, which therefore remain soft and are easily deformed. This condition is known as ‘rickets’

12 No A shortage of vitamin C (calciferol) can be one cause of bleeding gums

13 Question 3 The final digestion products of proteins are … (a) sugars (b) glycerols (c) fatty acids (d) amino acids Question 4

14 No Sugars (e.g. glucose and fructose) are the final digestion products of carbohydrates, such as starch

15 No Glycerol is one of the products of fat digestion

16 No Fatty acids are one of the products of digestion of fats

17 Yes The final digestion products of proteins are amino acids

18 Question 4 In the small intestine, the villi … (a) speed up digestion (d) secrete digestive enzymes (c) increase the absorptive surface (b) propel food through the intestine Question 5

19 No The villi speed up absorption

20 Food is propelled through the alimentary canal by a muscular process called peristalsis No

21 Yes The numerous, finger-like processes called villi, greatly increase the absorptive surface of the small intestine Section of small intestine opened to show villi

22 No The villi contain enzymes but they do not secrete them into the intestine

23 Question 5 When the ventricles contract, blood is forced into … (d) the pulmonary artery (a) the aorta (b) the vena cava (c) the pulmonary artery and the aorta Question 6

24 Yes but … Contraction of the left ventricle forces blood into the aorta, but the right ventricle is contracting at the same time

25 No The vena cava brings blood to the right ventricle

26 Yes Contraction of the left ventricle forces blood into the aorta. Contraction of the right ventricle forces blood into the pulmonary artery

27 Yes but … Contraction of the right ventricle forces blood into the pulmonary artery but remember that the left ventricle is also contracting.

28 Question 6 In the lungs, gaseous exchange takes place in … (a)the alveoli (b) the bronchioles (c) the bronchi (d) the trachea Question 7

29 Yes The alveoli are tiny air pockets at the ends of the bronchioles. Oxygen from the air diffuses into the blood capillaries in their walls and carbon dioxide diffuses out bronchi trachea lung bronchiole alveoli

30 No The bronchioles are the fine tubes which carry air to the alveoli but significant gaseous exchange does not take place here

31 No The bronchi are the wide tubes which branch repeatedly to form the bronchioles. No significant gaseous exchange takes place here.

32 No The trachea is the wide tube leading from the back of the mouth and dividing into bronchi. No significant gaseous exchange takes place here

33 Question 7 Which of the following are excretory organs? (a) The lungs (b) The skin (c) The kidneys (d) The large intestine Question 8

34 Yes The lungs excrete carbon dioxide which is a waste product of cellular respiration. They also expel water vapour some of which could be a waste product of respiration, but this is incidental to their main function and an inevitable consequence of the moist lining of the alveoli

35 No Sweat, from the sweat glands in the skin, contains salt (sodium chloride) but this is incidental to the main function of sweat production (cooling the body). The sweat glands do not produce sweat in response to an increase in sodium chloride in the blood and are not, therefore, organs of excretion. In fact, loss of salt which results from prolonged sweating can be harmful.

36 Yes The kidneys excrete, urea, uric acid, excess salts and the breakdown products of hormones or drugs. These substances are all waste products of the body’s metabolism. The kidneys also excrete excess water, some of which has been produced in the process of respiration.

37 No The contents of the large intestine are largely made up of undigested vegetable matter (fibre), bacteria and water. These have not been incorporated into the body or taken part in chemical changes in the body so they are not excretory products. The process of expelling faeces is egestion, not excretion The break down products of bile pigments, which colour the faeces, are excretory products but are excreted by the liver

38 Question 8 The graphs represent the relative concentrations of 3 female hormones in the blood over a 28 day period. In which period is fertilisation (conception) most likely to occur? Days oestrogen follicle-stimulating hormone progesterone (d) Days (c) Days (b) Days (a) Days Question 9

39 No This is the period when menstruation is taking place

40 Although the concentration of oestrogen is high, there is unlikely to be an ovum present in the oviduct at this stage No

41 Yes Follicle-stimulating hormone is one of the hormones that triggers the release of an ovum from the ovary (ovulation). Assuming the ovum can survive for a day, and sperms can survive for 2 days this is the fertile period when conception is most likely

42 No The ovum is unlikely to survive into this period. The increase in progesterone causes the lining of the uterus to thicken in preparation for the ovum, if it has been fertilised

43 Question 9 Which of the following are the likely effects of release of adrenaline from the adrenal gland into the bloodstream? (d) The heart rate increases (c) The skeletal muscles relax (a) The rate and depth of breathing increases (b) The liver converts glucose in the blood to glycogen Question 10

44 Yes Adrenaline is the ‘fight or flight’ hormone and prepares the body for action. An increase in the rate and depth of breathing gets more oxygen into the blood. This means that more prolonged activity can occur.

45 No Adrenaline causes the liver to convert its glycogen store to glucose which is released into the bloodstream where it becomes available for rapid muscular contraction.

46 No Adrenaline causes the muscles to tense up in preparation for ‘flight or fight’

47 Yes An increased heart rate helps to supply extra oxygen and glucose to the muscles for their heightened activity during ‘flight or fight’

48 Question 10 Which of the following are reflex actions? (d) You blink when a particle of sand blows into your eye (c) You walk without thinking about it (b) You automatically move the handlebars of your bicycle to steer or to keep your balance (a) You ‘jump’ in response to a sudden and unexpected loud noise Question 11

49 Yes You have no control over whether you ‘jump’ or not. This is a reflex action

50 Although this happens without your having to think about it, it is a ‘learned’ reaction and not a reflex. An acquired skill is not a reflex No

51 Although this happens without your having to think about it, it is a ‘learned’ reaction and not a reflex. An acquired skill is not a reflex No

52 You have no control over whether you blink or not Yes

53 Question 11 A B C D The drawing represents the skeleton and muscles of the leg. When the leg straightens to thrust the body forwards, which of the following is the correct sequence? (a) A contracts, B relaxes, C relaxes, D contracts (b) B contracts, A relaxes, D contracts, C relaxes (c) A contracts, B relaxes, C contracts, D relaxes (d) A contracts, B contracts, C relaxes, D relaxes Question 12

54 If D contracts, it flexes the foot at the ankle. The foot must be extended if it is to push the body forwards No

55 If B contracts, it will flex (bend) the leg at the knee. This will not help to push the body forward If D contracts, it flexes the foot at the ankle. The foot must be extended if it is to push the body forwards No

56 A A contracts and extends (straightens) the leg at the knee C contracts and extends (straightens) the foot at the ankle These two movements make the leg push against the ground and thrust the body upwards and forwards B and D must be relaxed to allow their antagonistic muscles to contract B C D contracts relaxes contracts relaxes Yes

57 If C and D both relax, there will be nothing to support the ankle and you will fall flat on your face No A and B are antagonistic muscles. If they both try to contract there will be no movement. However, the tension in both must be retained in order to hold the body upright in a standing position

58 Question 12 Which of the following is the best definition of ‘homeostasis’ in mammals? (d) Maintaining a constant body mass (a) Keeping the body temperature constant (b) Maintaining a constant internal environment (c) Getting rid of the waste products of metabolism as fast as they accumulate

59 No Keeping the body temperature within limits is only one aspect of homeostasis

60 Yes This is the best definition (provided you know what it means) The ‘internal environment’ refers mainly to the blood, lymph and tissue fluid. Homeostasis involves all the processes which keep the temperature and composition of these fluids within narrow limits The lungs control the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide. The kidneys eliminate excretory products and maintain the concentration. The skin helps to regulate the temperature The liver controls the concentration of glucose And the brain, nervous system and endocrine system control them all

61 No This is just one aspect of homeostasis. The kidneys get rid of the waste products of metabolism as fast as they accumulate and control the amount of water retained in the body

62 No Even in a mature animal, the body mass will fluctuate with the seasons, the activity and the availability of food. With an immature animal the body mass will increase

63 End of questions End show Back to start


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