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50  m 140  m Maxim Titov, CEA Saclay, France Micromegas: GEM + CMOS ASIC Thick GEM + (THGEM) OUTLINE: Pestov CountersPestov Counters Resistive Plate.

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Presentation on theme: "50  m 140  m Maxim Titov, CEA Saclay, France Micromegas: GEM + CMOS ASIC Thick GEM + (THGEM) OUTLINE: Pestov CountersPestov Counters Resistive Plate."— Presentation transcript:

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2 50  m 140  m Maxim Titov, CEA Saclay, France Micromegas: GEM + CMOS ASIC Thick GEM + (THGEM) OUTLINE: Pestov CountersPestov Counters Resistive Plate ChambersResistive Plate Chambers Micro-Pattern Gas DetectorsMicro-Pattern Gas Detectors (GEM, Micromegas, Thick GEM) RD51 Electronics (Scalable Readout Systems)RD51 Electronics (Scalable Readout Systems)OUTLINE: Pestov CountersPestov Counters Resistive Plate ChambersResistive Plate Chambers Micro-Pattern Gas DetectorsMicro-Pattern Gas Detectors (GEM, Micromegas, Thick GEM) RD51 Electronics (Scalable Readout Systems)RD51 Electronics (Scalable Readout Systems) «The Factors that Limit Time Resolution in Photodetectors», Timing Workshop, University of Chicago, April 28, 2011

3 GOOD TIME RESOLUTION ---> THIN GAP GOOD EFFICIENCY---> THICK GAS LAYER THIN GAP (100 µm) AND HIGH PRESSURES (~10 bar) HIGH RESISTIVITY ELECTRODE (PESTOV GLASS, 10 9 Ω cm Yu. Pestov, NIM 196(1982)45 SIGNAL PICK-UP STRIPS SEMI-CONDUCTING GLASS ANODE METAL CATHODE HIGH-PRESSURE GAS VESSEL PHYSICAL ORIGIN OF TAILS IN THE TIME RESPONSE OF SPARK COUNTERS: TIME RESPONSE OF SPARK COUNTERS: Yu Pestov et al. NIMA265 (1988) 198 Yu. Pestov et al., NIMA456 (2000) 11 Mangiarotti and A. Gobbi, NIMA. A482(2002)192 Time resolution is proportional to discharge delay time (fluctuation of delay time is the sum of the fluctuation of the avalanche development and the occurrence of the streamer)

4 HIGH RESISTIVITY ELECTRODE (BAKELITE) GAS GAP GRAPHITE COATING INSULATOR READOUT STRIPS X READOUT STRIPS Y HV GND Time resolution of a RPC can be parameterized as: Δτ = λ/v λ is the mean free path of electrons in avalanche, v is drift velocity of electrons LOW λ and HIGH v can be obtained with dense/fast gas mixtures: C 2 H 2 F 4 – iC 4 H 10 – SF 6 Typical values: λ ~ 10μm, v ~ 100 μm/ns → Δτ ~ 100ps Only avalanches within a few hundred  m from cathode generate signals Raether limit: G = e d/λ < 10 8 → for λ ~ 10μm d gap ~ 200μm To avoid discharges the gap must be reduced → MICROGAP R. Santonico, NIMA 187(1981)37 P. Fonte, NIMA449 (2000) 295 ; P.Fonte, A.Smirnitski, C Williams, NIMA443(2000)201 I.Crotty et al, NIM A337(1994)370 I.Crotty et al, NIM A337(1994)370

5 INCREASING THE GAP PROVIDES BETTER EFFICIENCY PLATEAUX INCREASING THE GAP PROVIDES BETTER EFFICIENCY PLATEAUX For gas gaps of 0.3 mm or larger, the timing jitter in parallel-plate detectors For gas gaps of 0.3 mm or larger, the timing jitter in parallel-plate detectors varies almost linearly with the width of the gaps HVGND M. Abbrescia et al, NIM A431(1999)413 SINGLE GAP FWHM 2.3 ns DOUBLE GAP FWHM=1.7 ns

6 (caveat - table last updated in 2003)

7 Add boundaries that stop avalanche development. These boundaries must be invisible to the fast induced signal – induced signal on external pickup C. Williams, RD51 Mini-Week, July 20, 2010

8 E. Cerron Zeballos et al, NIMA 374(1996)132 A.Akindinov et al, NIMA 456(2000)16 HV GND FLOATING C. Williams, RD51 Mini-Week, July 20, 2010 After time correction using pulse-height) ( After time correction using pulse-height) Would like large fast signal and small total charge (high rate capability)

9 2 mm Bakelite 2 mm gas gap    cm 2 mm Bakelite X readout strips Y readout strips E ~ 50 kV Timing and Multi-Gap RPC  ALICE TOF P. Fonte, V. Peskov, C. Williams (~50 ps) 0.4 mm glass plates plates 0.3 mm gas gaps Pickup electrodes Trigger RPC: R. Cardarelli, R. Santonico  ATLAS, CMS (~ 2000 – 4000 m 2 )  timing resolution ~ 1-5 ns (MIPs) E ~ 100 kV `Renaissance of particle identification’ using Multi-Gap RPC in ALICE: `Renaissance of particle identification’ using Multi-Gap RPC in ALICE:

10 C. Williams, RD51 Mini-Week, July 20, 2010 B 10 ps devices could be feasible – one of the biggest problem could be the electronics : the TDC

11 Micromegas Micromegas GEM GEM Thick-GEM, Hole-Type Detectors and RETGEM Thick-GEM, Hole-Type Detectors and RETGEM MPDG with CMOS pixel ASICs MPDG with CMOS pixel ASICs Ingrid Technology Ingrid Technology Electrons Ions 60 % 40 % Micromegas GEMTHGEM MHSPIngrid 0.18  m CMOS VLSI CMOS high density readout electronics

12 11 Thin metal-coated polymer foil chemically pierced by a high density of holes A difference of potentials of ~ 500V is applied between the two GEM electrodes. The primary electrons released by the The primary electrons released by the ionizing particle, drift towards the holes ionizing particle, drift towards the holes where the high electric field triggers the electron multiplication process. Electrons are collected on patterned readout board. A fast signal can be detected on the lower GEM electrode for triggering or energy discrimination. All readout electrodes are at ground potential. S1S2S3 S4 Induction gap e - I+I+ F. Sauli, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A386(1997)531 F. Sauli,

13 F. Sauli, NIM A386(1997) 531; F. Sauli, Full decoupling of amplification stage (GEM) and readout stage (PCB, anode) Cartesian Compass, LHCb Small angle Hexaboard, pads MICE MixedTotem CompassTotem 33 cm NA49-future Amplification and readout structures can be optimized independently !

14 CF torr 770 torr Single Photon Time Resolution: 200 µm FWHM ~160 µm Beam ~ 100 µm Intrinsic accuracy  (RMS)  ~ 55 µm Intrinsic accuracy  (RMS)  ~ 55 µm Single Photon Position Accuracy: T. Meinschad et al, NIM A535 (2004) 324; D.Mormann et al., NIMA504 (2003) 93 Time-resolution is determined by the fluctuations in the photoelectron transit time from their emission point at the PC and, after multiplication, to the anode.  depends on the detector geometry, the electric field conditions and properties of the gas composition, namely on the electron diffusion and drift velocity. low diffusion & high electron drift velocity in CF4 Induction gap ~ 1mm

15 A. Bressan et al, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A425 (1999) 262 Triple GEM for LHC-b Detector : Time Resolution ~ 5 ns Triple GEM for CMS Upgrade: G. Bencivenni, IEEE TNS 49(6), 3242 (2002) Time resolution for different gas mixtures and gap configurations: Ar(45):CO 2 (15):CF 4 (40) [gaps 3/1/2/1] Ar(45):CO 2 (15):CF 4 (40) [gaps 3/1/2/1] Ar(70):CO 2 (30) [gaps 3/2/2/2] Ar(70):CO 2 (30) [gaps 3/2/2/2] A. Sharma, private communications

16 1,0E-02 1,0E-01 1,0E+00 1,0E+01 1,0E+02 1,0E+03 1,0E+04 1,0E+05 1,0E+06 1,0E  V THGEM (V) Gain MM = 330 NeCF4 10% MM = 290 NeCF4 5% DTHGEM NeCF4 10% DTHGEM NeCF4 5% STANDARD GEM 10 3 GAIN IN SINGLE GEM THGEM 10 5 gain in single-THGEM 1 mm 0.1 mm rim to prevent discharges Simple & Robust  Manufactured by standard PCB techniques of precise drilling in G-10 (and other materials) and Cu etching Other groups developed similar hole-multipliers: - Optimized GEM: L. Periale et al., NIM A478 (2002) LEM: P. Jeanneret, - PhD thesis, C. Shalem et al, NIMA558 (2006) 475; Effective single-electron detection Effective single-electron detection (high gas gain ~10 5 (>10 6 (high gas gain ~10 5 (>10 6 single (double) THGEM) single (double) THGEM) Few-ns RMS time resolution Few-ns RMS time resolution Sub-mm position resolution Sub-mm position resolution MHz/mm 2 rate capability MHz/mm 2 rate capability Cryogenic operation: OK Cryogenic operation: OK Gas: molecular and noble gases Gas: molecular and noble gases Pressure: 1mbar - few bar Pressure: 1mbar - few bar 10 6 C. Azevedo et al.; arXiv: Double THGEM or THGEM/Micromegas

17 Signal shape is determined by the electron drift velocity and the width and field strength in the induction gap. Smaller induction gap & Smaller induction gap & Higher electric field Higher electric field  Faster and narrower signals Electron drift time from THGEM surface into holes (simulation) Singlephotons Time Resolution with MIPs: Variations in rise-time, shape and amplitude (in addition to statistics of primary ionization) R. Alon et al., arXiv: R. Alon, MsD 2007, Weinzmann Institute

18 Y. Giomataris et al, NIM A376(1996)29 Micromesh Gaseous Chamber: a micromesh supported by  m insulating pillars Multiplication (up to 10 5 or more) takes place between the anode and the mesh and the charge is collected on the anode (one stage) Small gap: fast collection of ions

19 CsI coated mesh Single photon pulse height distribution (Polya)  icromegas Time Resolution :  ~ 700 ps Single Photon Time Resolution: J. Derre et al., NIM A449 (2000) 314 Physical time jittersfor UV photons  Physical time jitters for UV photons  electron diffusion in the gas and noise. Excellent S/N performance:

20 A time resolution of ~1 ns results in space points with a resolution along the drift direction of ~50 μm T. Alexopoulos et al, NIM A617 (2010) 161 The time information for each channel is extracted from the peak time of the ADC spectra. The strip with the earliest arrival time is taken as reference.

21 InGrid: integrate Micromegas & pixel chip by Si-wafer post-processing technology Grid robustness & Gap/Hole accuracy Grid robustness & Gap/Hole accuracy 0.8 µm Al grid Pattern Al Development of SU8 photoresist UV Exposure Deposit 50 µm SU(8) “Ingrid” + Silicon Protection Layer: Apply Si3N4 (high resistivity layer 3-20  m) for discharge quench & SPARK & SPARKPROTECTION before InGrid production “InGrid” Detector: SiProt Layer M. Chefdeville et al, NIMA556(2006) 490

22 Fe 55 source Observe electrons (~220) from an X-ray (5.9 keV) conversion one by one and count them in micro-TPC (6 cm drift)  Study single electron response 1.5 cm P. Colas, RD51 Collab. Meet., Jun.16-17, 2009, WG2 Meeting Provoke discharges by introducing small amount of Thorium in the Ar gas - Thorium decays to Radon 222 which emits 2 alphas of 6.3 & 6.8 MeV  Round-shape images of discharges M. Fransen, RD51 Collab. Meet., Oct.13-15, 2008, WG2 Meeting Oct.13-15, 2008, WG2 Meeting Using low noise CMOS chips could lead to higher S/N -> help to improve time resolution

23 22 Collaboration of ~75 institutes worldwide, ~ 430 authors RD51 Collaboration Meetings: 1 st - Amsterdam April 16-18, 2008 : 2 nd - Paris, October 13-15, 2008 : 3 rd - Crete (Greece), June 12-16, 2009 : 4 th – CERN, November 23-25, 2009 : 5 th – Freiburg, Germany, May 24-27, 2010 : 6 th – Bari (Italy), October 7-10, 2010: 7 th –CERN, April 12-15, 2011: https://indico.cern.ch/conferenceDisplay.py?confId= https://indico.cern.ch/conferenceDisplay.py?confId= “RD51 aims at facilitating the development of advanced gas-avalanche detector technologies and associated electronic-readout systems, for applications in basic and applied research.” Freiburg, Germany, May 2010 Bari, Italy, October 2010

24 WG1: large area Micromegas, GEM; THGEM R&D; MM resistive anode readout (discharge protection); design and detector assembly optimization; large area readout electrodes and electronics interface WG2: double phase operation, radiation tolerance, discharge protection, rate effects, single- electron response, avalanche fluctuations, photo detection with THGEM and GridPix WG3: applications beyond HEP, industrial applications (X-ray diffraction, homeland security) WG4: development of the software tools; microtracking; neBEM field solver, electroluminescence simulation tool, Penning transfers, GEM charging up; MM transparency and signal, MM discharges WG5: MPGD Scalable Readout System (SRS); Timepix multi-chip MPGD readout WG6: CERN MPGD Production Facility; industrialisation; TT Network WG7: RD51 test beam facility 23 Consolidation around common projects: large area MPGD R&D, CERN/MPGD Production Facility, electronics developments, software tools, beam tests Production Facility, electronics developments, software tools, beam tests GEM

25 Development of a portable multi-channel readout system: Scalable readout architecture: a few hundreds to several thousand channels Scalable readout architecture: a few hundreds to several thousand channels  Suited for small test systems up to very large systems (> 100 k ch.) Project specific part (ASIC) + common acquisition hardware and software Project specific part (ASIC) + common acquisition hardware and software

26 Readout Units GBE switch DA Q 10 GBE network Clock & Trigge r ethernet GB-ethernet MM fiber or copper SRU.. Control Data + Control … FEC chip s DTC point-to-point links FEC chip s FEC chip s FEC chip s.. TTC Contro l PC Trigger, clock and control Single mode fiber.. fibers / CAT6 Clock & timing LHC machine: Test systems: (only for multi-SRU architectures) Online/ Offline DATE Root-based offline Analysis GBE copper Chip link interface FEC Application specific chip-carriers simultaneous data up 200Mbit/s per FEC DETECTOR Common Specific 40x HLT 1000 BASE-SX up 500 m Multimode fiber (1 Gbit) 10 GBASE-SR up 300 m Multimode fiber ( 10 Gbit) Scalability from small to large system Scalability from small to large system Common interface for replacing the chip frontend Common interface for replacing the chip frontend Integration of proven and commercial solutions for a minimum of development Integration of proven and commercial solutions for a minimum of development Default availability of a very robust and supported DAQ software package(DATE). Default availability of a very robust and supported DAQ software package(DATE).

27 FEC cards Virtex-5 FPGA, Gb-Ethernet, DDR buffer, NIM and LVDS pulse I/O High speed Interface connectors to frontend adapter cards 22 FECs V1.1 produced in FEC V1.3 ready for production (all users booked) ADC frontend adapter for APV and Beetle chips ADC plugs into FEC to make a 6U readout unit for up to 2048 channels 18 ADC V1.0 produced in ADC V1.1 waiting for production 2011 Frontend hybrids so far all based on APV25 chip Version 1 proto: 5 working Version 2 users: 11 Version 3 systems: 16 (CERN PCB + bonding workshops), 320 (ELTOS + Hybrid SA ) = ongoing Industrial partners survey for the production For details please contact :

28 Detector Technology Typical time resolution* Pestov Counter Pestov Counter (High pressure, streamer discharge mode) (ps) (ps) Resitsive Plate Resitsive Plate Chambers (RPC) MultiGap RPC MultiGap RPC 1-5 ns (MIPs) ~ 1-5 ns (MIPs) ~ 50 ps (MIPs) Gas Electron Multiplier Gas Electron Multiplier - UV photons - UV photons - MIPs - MIPs ~ 1-2 ns ~ 5-10 ns Micromesh Gaseous Structures Micromesh Gaseous Structures - UV photons - MIPs - UV photons - MIPs ~ 700 ps ~ 1-10 ns * Numbers should be considered only as approximate


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