3 DefinitionsBiosphere - The entire portion of the globe that can support life, including the atmosphere, oceans, terrestrial surface and belowgroundBiome – The largest easily recognized subsection of the biosphere, based upon climate
4 DefinitionsEcosystem – A region where plants, animals and microbes can interact with each other and their environment.Community – A region where plants, animals and microbes can interact with each other.Population – An interbreeding group of organisms
5 Ecosystem Emergent Properties All “systems” are made up of components. Once those components are assembled into the system, they take on new properties, those of the “system”.E.g., bridge over South Canadian RiverE.g., living system
6 Ecosystem Emergent Properties What are the emergent properties of a living system, e.g., you?You are composed of carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen, etc., but you are so much more than bags of elements flopping aroundAs a living entity you:RespireIrritableCapable of reproduction
7 Ecosystem Emergent Properties So, as a “system” ecosystems also have emergent propertiesNutrient cyclingEnergy flow
8 Energy in EcosystemsEnergy Movement follows 1st and 2nd laws of thermodynamicsEnergy can’t be created or destroyedAny transfers of energy are not 100% efficient
14 Nutrient Cycling There are two major types of nutrient cycles Gaseous – Most of the nutrient is stored in the atmosphereSedimentary – Most of the nutrient is stored in the sediments or soils
15 So what nutrients do we need? Macro-nutrients are needed in large quantitiesNa,Cl, C, H, O, P, K, I, N, S, Ca, Fe, MgMicro-nutrients are also essential, but are needed in only small amountsMo, B, Cl, Mn, Cu, Zn
16 Gaseous Nutrient Cycle The carbon cycle CO2Respiration(photosynthesis)plantDecomposersherbivorecarnivoretop carnivore
17 Sedimentary Nutrient Cycle Example: The Phosphorus Cycle erosionplantherbivorescarnivoresP in soildecomposers(weathering)P in rock (apatite)
18 So what nutrients do we need? Macro-nutrients are needed in large quantitiesNa,Cl, C, H, O, P, K, I, N, S, Ca, Fe, MgMicro-nutrients are also essential, but are needed in only small amountsMo, B, Cl, Mn, Cu, ZnThe elements in blue have gaseous cycles
20 Quick Quiz on Ecosystems What’s the definition of an ecosystem?An area where plants, animals and microbes interact with each other and the environmentSo why do you need an ecosystem forEnergy Flow?Nutrient Cycling?Does energy ever cycle?
22 Take out a clean piece of paper A practice quizList two types of symbiotic relationships
23 Quiz, continuedCompetition between organisms of different species is known as:Intraspecific interactionsIntraspecific competitionInterspecific interactionsInterspecific competition
24 Quiz, continuedIf you went up a tall mountain, how many meters increase in elevation would you have to go up to see the same change in vegetation structure that you would see if you went north 30 degrees latitude?1800 m4000 m400 m100 m
25 Quiz, continued Which biome has the greatest number of species? Which biome produces most of the wood pulp used for paper in the U.S.?
26 Quiz, continuedIn which grassland ecosystem would you expect to find the greatest number of species and why?Undisturbed tall grass prairieWheat fieldCorn fieldHeavily grazed tall grass prairie
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