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Ecosystem Properties. Ecological Hierarchies Biosphere Biome Ecosystem Community Population Organism Tissue Cell Molecules.

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Presentation on theme: "Ecosystem Properties. Ecological Hierarchies Biosphere Biome Ecosystem Community Population Organism Tissue Cell Molecules."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ecosystem Properties

2 Ecological Hierarchies Biosphere Biome Ecosystem Community Population Organism Tissue Cell Molecules

3 Definitions Biosphere - The entire portion of the globe that can support life, including the atmosphere, oceans, terrestrial surface and belowground Biome – The largest easily recognized subsection of the biosphere, based upon climate

4 Definitions Ecosystem – A region where plants, animals and microbes can interact with each other and their environment. Community – A region where plants, animals and microbes can interact with each other. Population – An interbreeding group of organisms

5 Ecosystem Emergent Properties All “systems” are made up of components. Once those components are assembled into the system, they take on new properties, those of the “system”. E.g., bridge over South Canadian River E.g., living system

6 Ecosystem Emergent Properties What are the emergent properties of a living system, e.g., you? You are composed of carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen, etc., but you are so much more than bags of elements flopping around As a living entity you: Respire Irritable Capable of reproduction

7 Ecosystem Emergent Properties So, as a “system” ecosystems also have emergent properties Nutrient cycling Energy flow

8 Energy in Ecosystems Energy Movement follows 1 st and 2 nd laws of thermodynamics –Energy can’t be created or destroyed –Any transfers of energy are not 100% efficient

9 Energy flow

10 Energy Flow Solar Energy Producers Herbivores Carnivores Top Carnivore 1 % 10% Consumers Calories 10,000 1, ,000,000

11 Energy Flow Solar Energy Producers Herbivores Carnivores Top Carnivore 1 % 10% Consumers Food Chain

12 Energy Flow Solar Energy Producers Herbivores Carnivores Top Carnivore 1 % 10% Consumers Trophic Level

13 Any Questions?

14 Nutrient Cycling There are two major types of nutrient cycles –Gaseous – Most of the nutrient is stored in the atmosphere –Sedimentary – Most of the nutrient is stored in the sediments or soils

15 So what nutrients do we need? Macro-nutrients are needed in large quantities Na,Cl, C, H, O, P, K, I, N, S, Ca, Fe, Mg Micro-nutrients are also essential, but are needed in only small amounts Mo, B, Cl, Mn, Cu, Zn

16 Gaseous Nutrient Cycle The carbon cycle CO 2 plant herbivore carnivoretop carnivore Respiration Decomposers (photosynthesis)

17 Sedimentary Nutrient Cycle Example: The Phosphorus Cycle P in rock (apatite) (weathering) P in soil plantherbivores carnivores decomposers erosionerosion

18 So what nutrients do we need? Macro-nutrients are needed in large quantities Na,Cl, C, H, O, P, K, I, N, S, Ca, Fe, Mg Micro-nutrients are also essential, but are needed in only small amounts Mo, B, Cl, Mn, Cu, Zn The elements in blue have gaseous cycles

19

20 Quick Quiz on Ecosystems What’s the definition of an ecosystem? An area where plants, animals and microbes interact with each other and the environment So why do you need an ecosystem for –Energy Flow? –Nutrient Cycling? Does energy ever cycle?

21 NO-O-O!

22 Take out a clean piece of paper A practice quiz List two types of symbiotic relationships

23 Quiz, continued Competition between organisms of different species is known as: a.Intraspecific interactions b.Intraspecific competition c.Interspecific interactions d.Interspecific competition

24 Quiz, continued If you went up a tall mountain, how many meters increase in elevation would you have to go up to see the same change in vegetation structure that you would see if you went north 30 degrees latitude? a.1800 m b.4000 m c.400 m d.100 m

25 Quiz, continued Which biome has the greatest number of species? Which biome produces most of the wood pulp used for paper in the U.S.?

26 Quiz, continued In which grassland ecosystem would you expect to find the greatest number of species and why? a.Undisturbed tall grass prairie b.Wheat field c.Corn field d.Heavily grazed tall grass prairie


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