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THE MANHATTAN PROJECT 1942 - 1945

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Possible Routes to Fissionable Materials Considered by U. S. in 1942 Natural Uranium (99.3% U-238, 0.7% U-235) Gaseous Diffusion Electromagnetic Separation Centrifugation Liquid Thermal Diffusion U-235 Uranium-graphite reactor Uranium-heavy water reactor Pu-239

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Uranium Metallurgy

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Methods Used to Separate U-235 from U-238

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Gaseous Diffusion K-25 Plant Oak Ridge

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Calutrons at the Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge

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Y-12 Electromagnetic Separation Plant Oak Ridge

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Production of weapons grade U-235 Oak Ridge, TN - 1944-45 Natural uranium U-235 (0.7 %) UF 6 (g) U-235 (0.86%) UF 6 (g) U-235 (7%) UF 4 (s) Product U-235 (90%) UF 4 (s) U-235 (15%) UF 4 (s) S-50 Thermal Diffusion K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Y-12 Alpha Calutrons Y-12 Beta Calutrons

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Production of Plutonium From Uranium in a Nuclear Reactor

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Fuel Fabrication Prepare fissile material to fuel nuclear reactors.

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Naturally Occurring Uranium U-235 (0.7%) U-238 (99.3%) Hanford Irradiated Fuel U-235 (<1%) other radioactive isotopes including Pu-239 (<1%) U-238 (>98%) 4000 grams of irradiated uranium produce approximately 1 gram Pu-239

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Pu Recovery by Bismuth Phosphate Process Pu is found in low concentrations (<250 ppm) in reactor products. Weapons grade Pu must be chemically pure (< 1 part in 10 7 parts Pu). The Pu recovery for total process was 95% with < 1 part impurity in 10 7. Pu(s) + X(s) HNO 3 Pu 4+ (aq) + X y+ (aq) H 2 SO 4 Pu 4+ (aq) + X y+ (aq) + Bi 3+ (aq)Pu 3 (PO) 4 (s) +X y+ (aq) + BiPO 4 (s) Pu 3 (PO) 4 (s) +BiPO 4 (s) HNO 3 oxid. agent Pu 6+ (aq) +Bi 3+ (aq) Pu 6+ (aq) +Bi 3+ (aq) H 3 PO 4 Pu 6+ (aq) + BiPO 4 (s) Pu 6+ (aq) H2O2H2O2 PuO 2 2+ (aq)Pu(s) reducing agent X(s) = fission products or uranium; y+ = oxidation state Plutonium was redissolved and further purified using LaF 2 in place of BiPO 4 (s)

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Inside Hanford T Plant

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Little Boy - Hiroshima - 0815, August 6, 1945 Size:10 ft long Weight:8.900 lbs. (132 lbs >90% U-235) (~ 2lbs underwent fission) Height of blast: 1900 ft. Yield:15 - 16 Kt TNT Casualties~ 100,000 immediate deaths ~ 200,000 total deaths

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Fat Man - Nagasaki - 1102, August 9, 1945 Size:~ 10.5 ft long, 5ft. Diameter Weight:10,300 lbs.. (12 lbs.. Pu-239 of which ~ 2 lbs. underwent fission) Height of blast:1650 ft. Yield:22 Kt of TNT Casualties:~70,000 immediate deaths ~140,000 total deaths

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THE LEGACY OF HIROSHIMA 1945 - 2004

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Fuel rod fabrication plant in Yongbyon, North Korea

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Map of DPRK Nuclear Sites

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http://alsos.wlu.edu

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http://www.chemcases.com/2003version/nuclear/index2.htm

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