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Basic-08_1 Dust – definition, origin, dangers, particle distribution by Eng. Wolfgang Brunnhuber Grimm Aerosol-Technik.

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Presentation on theme: "Basic-08_1 Dust – definition, origin, dangers, particle distribution by Eng. Wolfgang Brunnhuber Grimm Aerosol-Technik."— Presentation transcript:

1 Basic-08_1 Dust – definition, origin, dangers, particle distribution by Eng. Wolfgang Brunnhuber Grimm Aerosol-Technik

2 2 Wolfgang Brunnhuber, Dr. Friedhelm Schneider Aerosol, Dust Sources Definitions Particle distribution Coagulation Sedimentation and Diffusion Relation between number, surface and mass Dangers, effects on human health Risk potential on human health Summary Content

3 3 Wolfgang Brunnhuber, Dr. Friedhelm Schneider Agriculture, landuse Demolition work Aerosol, Dust Sources Etna, Sicilia, 2002 Biomass burning South Africa Pollen, gaseous precursors Pollen, transport Sea salt Sandstrom, erosion Traffic, automotive Heating Biomass burning, Italy Natural Sources Natural Sources Volcano Desert storms Soil erosion Sea salt Fires, biomass burning Pollen, gaseous precursors Anthropogenic Sources Anthropogenic Sources Traffic, combustion Power plants and heating Working processes, like welding, crushing, grinding Agriculture Fires, biomass burning

4 4 Wolfgang Brunnhuber, Dr. Friedhelm Schneider Aerosol, Dust Sources Workplaces Workplaces Soldering Demolition Cabins Wood processing Bakery Animal husbandry Composting Indoor Air Quality Indoor Air Quality Smoking Vacuum cleaner Copy machines Animals Resuspension from floors welding Agriculture / Compsoting bakery Demolition work / Cabins Wood processing Animal husbandry smoking Vacuum cleaner Copy machines animals resuspension

5 5 Wolfgang Brunnhuber, Dr. Friedhelm Schneider Aerosol, Dust some definitions, depending on applications! Dust Aerosol Environmental Environmental total suspended particles TSP particulate matter PM10, PM2.5, (PM1) PM Coarse semi volatiles SVC Atmospheric Science Atmospheric Science primary aerosols secondary aerosols cloud droplets ice condensation nuclei Industry Industry dust clean room classes filter efficiency nano materials engineered nanoparticles Aerosol Science Aerosol Science aerosol sprays nanoparticles organic/inorganic aerosols Aerosol standards risk potential Indoor Air Quality Indoor Air Quality bio aerosols toner dust inhalable dust respireable dust thoracic, alveolic dust

6 6 Wolfgang Brunnhuber, Dr. Friedhelm Schneider Aerosol, Dust some definitions Aerosol: solid and/or liquid, in gas floating particles within a particle size range between 0,001 µm to 100 µm (vgl. Die Atmosphäre als Kolloid, 1936) Primary aerosols: directly emitted into the air, e.g. by bulk to particle conversion (BPC) Secondary aerosols: aerosols originated from gaseous precursors, by gas to particle conversion (GPC), accumulation and coagulation e.g. NH 4 NO 3 or (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 Dust: suspension of solid particles produced by mechanical disintegration of material such as crushing, grinding and blasting PM10: particulate matter, mass of particles with aerodynamic diameters approximately smaller than 10µm TSP: total suspended particles, mass of particles with aerodynamic diameters approximately smaller than 35µm Nanoparticles: particles < 100 nm diameter (mostly classified by their electrical mobility diameter), engineered nanoparticles

7 7 Wolfgang Brunnhuber, Dr. Friedhelm Schneider Particle distribution aerosol sources and sinks, formation and elimination µm Primary particles from combustion processes Gases (SO 2, NO x, VOC, NH 3, H 2 O) Secondary particles sources and precursors formation processes elimination processes sedimentation diameter [µm] Primary particles from mechanical disintegration, erosion Coarse particles fine particles (PM2.5) thoracic fraction (PM10) TSP mass impaction wash out condensation coagulation gas to particle conversion GPC bulk to particle conversion BPC diffusion

8 8 Wolfgang Brunnhuber, Dr. Friedhelm Schneider Particle distribution particle formation and grows by coagulation (effect of filters!) poly disperse coagulation mono disperse coagulation Filter removing „big“ particles no poly disperse coagulation!

9 9 Wolfgang Brunnhuber, Dr. Friedhelm Schneider Particle distribution: Elimination of airborne particles by sedimentation and diffusion sedimentationdiffusion How long stay particles in the air? This depends on particle size - and on particles sedimentation and diffusion velocity! sedimentation The sedimentation velocity of particles strongly depends on particle size: sedimentation -a particle of 10 µm diameter sinks in one second app. 5 mm -a particle of 1 µm diameter sinks in one second app. 0.3 mm -a particle of 0.1 µm diameter sinks in one second app mm -a particle of 0.01 µm diameter sinks in one second app mm diffusion Diffusion depends on size, too. Small particles have high diffusion velocity. diffusion stay long suspended

10 10 Wolfgang Brunnhuber, Dr. Friedhelm Schneider

11 11 Wolfgang Brunnhuber, Dr. Friedhelm Schneider Particle distribution: Comparing number and mass. Example for flour dust in a bakery! %-distribution dust mass %-distribution particle number 0,5-2 µm 2-5 µm 5-10 µm >10 µm 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Less than 10% of the particle number cause about 70% of particle mass

12 12 Wolfgang Brunnhuber, Dr. Friedhelm Schneider Dangers effects on human health: Risk potential of dust particles by… by: size concentration chemical composition adsorbed chemicals particle size distribution particle concentration chemical composition of the dust particles surface bound or adsorbed chemicals (like PAH) Y Y Y Y Y Y

13 13 Wolfgang Brunnhuber, Dr. Friedhelm Schneider Risk potential of dust particles: Deposition of dust in human lung Inhaled dust Inhalable Fraction Inhalable Fraction Fraction passing the larynx and getting into the thorax Thoracic Fraction The fine particles, entering the more than 300 Mio. alveolic bubbles Alveolic Fraction

14 14 Wolfgang Brunnhuber, Dr. Friedhelm Schneider Risk potential of dust particles: dust measurement at workplaces 1894 First German guideline for dust in mining industry 1903 German Montangesellschaft starts with workplace measurements 1934 Workplace standard and control with GRAVIMETRIC METHODE 1989 First portabe GRIMM-Dustmonitor (1.102) 1992 Fist IAQ Dustmonitor with size channels (1.105) 1993 EN 481 as European standard for workplaces 1997 First Mini-Aerosol-Spectrometer and Dust Monitor (1.108) 1998 ISO 799 International Standard (like EN-481) 2000 New generation of aerosol spectrometer (1.109) 2001 Ultra fine IAQ Nano-Monitor (5.403) from 5nm to 350nm 2004 First Aerosol-Spectrometer for Bio-Aerosols (1.209) 2006 Aerosol-Spectrometer Sky-OPC for research (1.129) 2008 Nano-Counter Attachment for 1.108/1.109 (1.300)

15 15 Wolfgang Brunnhuber, Dr. Friedhelm Schneider Summary: Advantages of GRIMM systems  portable, battery powered or via power supply  real time measurement  Optical particle counting and sizing PLUS sampling of all particles on a PTFE filter for chemically, gravimetrically or microscopically analyses (Dual technology)  Results in µg/m 3 or particles/litre in 15 or 31 size channels or simultaneously mass fractions according to EN 481 or US EPA  Online measurements via PC or stand alone measurement with data storage card and display  WINDOWS  -Software

16 16 Wolfgang Brunnhuber, Dr. Friedhelm SchneiderGRIMM more advantages:  optional sensors for temperature, relative humidity and air velocity, and PAH‘s nano particle surface (model 1.300, autumn 2008)  Alarm values select able for all size channels  different models for workplace measurements (indoor) dust measurement in environment (outdoor) portable, mobile and stationary use air quality monitoring filter testing and control filter efficiency by particle size combination with Grimm Nano instruments  New variable diluter

17 17 Wolfgang Brunnhuber, Dr. Friedhelm Schneider GRIMM can do!! Grimm instruments measure mass number size particle mass particle number concentration and particle size with high time resolution and high accuracy! For indoor AND outdoor application! GRIMM can do!!


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