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Health and Safety Executive Carbon capture and storage: HSE perceptions Dr Gordon Newsholme Process safety corporate topic group.

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Presentation on theme: "Health and Safety Executive Carbon capture and storage: HSE perceptions Dr Gordon Newsholme Process safety corporate topic group."— Presentation transcript:

1 Health and Safety Executive Carbon capture and storage: HSE perceptions Dr Gordon Newsholme Process safety corporate topic group

2 Presentation overview Govt’s energy review Overview of the technology Health and safety risks Regulatory framework and standards Knowledge management/advancement opportunities Summary

3 What is carbon capture and storage? A series of processes by which the amount of man- made carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) released into the atmosphere could be reduced.

4 What does CCS involve? Separation of CO 2 from gaseous effluent streams Transportation to a suitable storage location Long-term isolation from the atmosphere

5 Potential capture sites Electricity generation stations using fossil fuels

6 Potential capture sites Electricity generation stations using fossil fuels Major industrial sources: –Iron and steel making –Cement production –Glass manufacture

7 Strategies for CO 2 capture Post-combustion

8 Strategies for CO 2 capture Post-combustion Traditional combustion

9 Strategies for CO 2 capture Post-combustion Traditional combustion Oxy-fuel combustion

10 Strategies for CO 2 capture Post-combustion Pre-combustion

11 Strategies for CO 2 capture Post-combustion Pre-combustion Steam reforming

12 Strategies for CO 2 capture Post-combustion Pre-combustion Steam reforming Gasification

13 Strategies for CO 2 capture Post-combustion Pre-combustion Non-combustion sources

14 Separation technologies

15 Absorption/adsorption –Scrubbing with amines etc –Pressure swing adsorption systems

16 Separation technologies Absorption/adsorption Cryogenic separation

17 Separation technologies Absorption/adsorption Cryogenic separation Gas separation membranes

18 Transportation of CO 2 to storage site Pipelines –Dense phase C0 2 –Specialist technology –2 500 km pipelines in USA –40 M tonnes p.a moved –Very low incident rate

19 Transportation of CO 2 to storage site Pipelines Ship –Moved as liquid at c 7 bar –Applicable experience from LNG shipping

20 Storage Geological Mineralisation Oceanic storage

21 Geological storage Depleted oil or gas reservoirs Saline aquifers Unmineable coal beds

22 Health and safety risks Gaseous CO 2

23 Health and safety risks Gaseous CO 2: –Asphyxiant –Heavier-than-air –Acid gas –Effect of elevated CO 2 levels on asset life

24 Health and safety risks Gaseous CO 2 Supercritical CO 2

25 Health and safety risks Gaseous CO 2 Supercritical CO 2 –Not a solid, a liquid or a gas –low viscosity, highly solubilising and invasive

26 Health and safety risks Gaseous CO 2 Supercritical CO 2 A release of sc CO 2 will: Produce a jet of gas, liquid/solid Very low temperatures ( C) Grit-blasting nature of releases

27 Health and safety risks Gaseous CO 2: Supercritical CO 2 Capture solvents

28 Health and safety risks Gaseous CO 2: Supercritical CO 2 Capture solvents –Flammable, irritant chemicals

29 Health and safety risks Gaseous CO 2: Supercritical CO 2 Capture solvents Trapped energy

30 Health and safety risks Gaseous CO 2: Supercritical CO 2 Capture solvents Trapped energy –Very high operating/injection pressures –Typically 200 bars, potentially 400 bars

31 Regulatory framework & standards etc Backdrop of general H & S duties (HSW Act) No new categories of safety risk involved All chemicals involved well documented LUP/MH legislation needs amendment Few sc CO 2 specific engineering standards

32 Significant health & safety issues Poor understanding of release behaviour of sc CO 2 Difficulty of developing foreseeable accident scenarios Risk to personnel, structure & function from releases Physiological hazards of CO 2 Effect of elevated CO 2 levels on asset life Lack of engineering standards specifically for sc CO 2

33 Knowledge management opportunities Large-scale sc CO 2 release behaviour studies Development of validated modelling techniques Appropriate sc CO 2 specific engineering codes/stds Effect of CO 2 on maintenance needs Recognise need for effective KM

34 Summary CCS projects will be major operational undertakings The technology is extremely specialised There is relevant expertise Projects may exceed current operating parameters Release behaviour of sc CO 2 is poorly understood Regulatory framework requires amendment

35 Acknowledgements Photographs and Diagrams: Enpira, Daniel, American Combustion, Arcadenet, Greenpeace, Aircare, Aci-Ecotec, UKOOA, Fba.nus,Healthy- women.org, World coal, CO2capture project.org, Science Museum, World Energy, IEA, Coal Authority, Whitehouse.gov, BBC, Etech, Steeltechnology.org, Petroleumbazaar.com, Shaygen-innovatio.co.uk, Firstpeople, hydrocarbon-technology, Princeton, BSU, BNL, Ebara

36 Carbon capture and storage Any questions or comments? Gordon Newsholme


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