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PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY THIRD EDITION Cindy L. Stanfield | William J. Germann PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides prepared by W.H. Preston, College of the.

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Presentation on theme: "PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY THIRD EDITION Cindy L. Stanfield | William J. Germann PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides prepared by W.H. Preston, College of the."— Presentation transcript:

1 PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY THIRD EDITION Cindy L. Stanfield | William J. Germann PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides prepared by W.H. Preston, College of the Sequoias Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. 17 The Respiratory System: Gas Exchange and Regulation of Breathing

2 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. O 2 and CO 2 Movement Figure 17.1

3 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Partial Pressure P total = P 1 + P 2 + P 3 + … P n Partial pressure of a gas depends on Fractional concentration of the gas Total pressure of gas mixture P gas = % gas x P total

4 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Gas Composition of Air P air = 760 mm Hg = P N 2 + P O 2 P N 2 = 0.79 x 760 mm Hg = 600 mm Hg P O 2 = 0.21 x 760 mm Hg = 160 mm Hg Air is only 0.03% carbon dioxide P CO 2 = x 760 mm Hg = 0.23 mm Hg

5 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Composition of Air at 100% Humidity P air = 760 mm Hg = P N 2 + P O 2 + P H 2 O P N 2 = x 760 mm Hg = 563 mm Hg P O 2 = x 760 mm Hg = 149 mm Hg P H 2 O = x 760 mm Hg = 47 mm Hg P CO 2 = x 760 mm Hg = 0.21 mm Hg

6 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Solubility: Henry’s Law c = kP c = molar concentration of dissolved gas k = Henry’s Law constant P = partial pressure of gas in atmospheres

7 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Solubility of O 2 Figure 17.3a

8 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Solubility of CO 2 Figure 17.3b

9 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. O 2 and CO 2 Partial Pressures Figure 17.4

10 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. O 2 and CO 2 Partial Pressures Table 17.1

11 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Pulmonary O 2 Exchange Figure 17.5a

12 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Pulmonary CO 2 Exchange Figure 17.5b

13 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Respiratory Terms Table 17.2

14 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Oxygen Transport in the Blood Oxygen not very soluble in plasma Thus only 3.0 mL/200 ml arterial blood oxygen dissolved in plasma (1.5%) Other 197 mL arterial blood oxygen transported by hemoglobin

15 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Forming Oxyhemoglobin Figure 17.6a

16 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Dissociation of O 2 from Hemoglobin Figure 17.6b

17 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Saturation of Hemoglobin with O 2 Arterial blood Hemoglobin is 98.5% saturated Figure 17.7a

18 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Saturation of Hemoglobin with O 2 Venous blood Hemoglobin is 75% saturated Figure 17.7b

19 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Oxygen Dissociation Curve Figure 17.8

20 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Figure 17.9 Effects of O 2 Affinity Changes Shift right Less loading of O 2 And less unloading Shift left More loading of O 2 And less unloading

21 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Temperature Effects: O 2 Saturation Higher temperature Active tissues Shift right More O 2 unloading in tissues More O 2 delivery to tissues Figure 17.10a

22 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Figure 17.10b pH Effects: O 2 Saturation Bohr effect Lower pH increases O 2 unloading Active tissues Produce more acid pH decreases in tissues Decreased pH causes shift right in saturation curve More O 2 is unloaded to tissues

23 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Carbon Monoxide Hemoglobin has greater affinity for carbon monoxide (CO) than for oxygen Prevents oxygen from binding to hemoglobin

24 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. CO 2 Transport in Blood Table 17.3

25 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Carbon Dioxide Transport in Blood The role of carbonic anyhdrase in carbon dioxide transport Carbon dioxide exchange and transport in systemic capillaries and veins Carbon dioxide exchange and transport in pulmonary capillaries and veins Effect of oxygen on carbon dioxide transport

26 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Carbon Dioxide Transport Mechanisms Although carbon dioxide is more soluble in plasma than oxygen, it is still not very soluble 5–6% transported dissolved in plasma Carbon dioxide can bind to hemoglobin to form carbaminohemoglobin 5–8% transported bound to hemoglobin

27 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Carbon Dioxide Transport Mechanisms Can be converted to bicarbonate by erythrocytes, then transported into plasma 86–90% transported dissolved in the plasma as bicarbonate

28 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. CO 2 + H 2 O  H 2 CO 3  H + + HCO 3 - CA Carbonic Anhydrase Enzyme that converts carbon dioxide and water to carbonic acid Law of Mass Action: An increase in CO 2 causes an increase in bicarbonate and hydrogen ions

29 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. CO 2 Exchange: Tissues Figure 17.11a

30 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. CO 2 Exchange: Lungs Figure 17.11b

31 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. PO 2 Effect on CO 2 Transport Figure 17.12

32 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Figure 17.13a Tissues: CO 2 Loading/O 2 Unloading

33 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Figure 17.13b Lungs: CO 2 Loading/O 2 Unloading


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