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Uranium Enrichment Reactor Core Nuclear Bomb Test Little Boy.

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Presentation on theme: "Uranium Enrichment Reactor Core Nuclear Bomb Test Little Boy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Uranium Enrichment Reactor Core Nuclear Bomb Test Little Boy

2 Why Separate? Must Separate Lighter U 235 from U 238 Must Separate Lighter U 235 from U 238 Only U 235 is fissionable Only U 235 is fissionable Necessary to produce reactor fuel which is 3.6% U 235 Necessary to produce reactor fuel which is 3.6% U 235 Weapons grade is 90% U 235 Weapons grade is 90% U 235 Lead container supposedly containing stolen weapons grade Uranium Billet of highly enriched U 235

3 Uranium Enrichment Centrifuges Uses UF 6 gas (Uranium Hexafluoride) Uses UF 6 gas (Uranium Hexafluoride) Solid UF 6 in vial

4 How Gas Centrifuge Works Originally developed in Russia by Austrian scientist

5 Gas Centrifuge Details The centrifugal forces push the heavier uranium 238 (U-238) closer to the wall of the rotor than the lighter U-235. The centrifugal forces push the heavier uranium 238 (U-238) closer to the wall of the rotor than the lighter U-235. The gas closer to the wall becomes depleted in U-235 whereas the gas nearer the rotor axis is enriched in U-235. The gas closer to the wall becomes depleted in U-235 whereas the gas nearer the rotor axis is enriched in U-235. The arrows in the first illustration depict the gas flowing within the rotor. The arrows in the first illustration depict the gas flowing within the rotor. The gas flow can be produced by a temperature gradient over the length of the centrifuge. UF6 depleted in U-235 flows upwards adjacent to the rotor wall, while UF6 enriched in U-235 flows downwards close to the axis. The two gas streams are removed through small scooped pipes, called "scoops." The gas flow can be produced by a temperature gradient over the length of the centrifuge. UF6 depleted in U-235 flows upwards adjacent to the rotor wall, while UF6 enriched in U-235 flows downwards close to the axis. The two gas streams are removed through small scooped pipes, called "scoops."

6 Spin 50,000 to 70,000 RPM Spin 50,000 to 70,000 RPM On magnetic bearings On magnetic bearings Run ten years without attention Run ten years without attention Low power use Low power use Give 1,000,000 g’s Give 1,000,000 g’s 10 to 20 stage cascade needed to get 3.6% U 235 from 0.7% natural occurring 10 to 20 stage cascade needed to get 3.6% U 235 from 0.7% natural occurring

7 Urenco Plant, UK

8 Gaseous Diffusion Process Passes UF 6 gas repeatedly through porous barriers with very tiny holes barely big enough for a molecule to squeeze through Passes UF 6 gas repeatedly through porous barriers with very tiny holes barely big enough for a molecule to squeeze through Lighter U 235 squeezes through more easily Lighter U 235 squeezes through more easily Paducah, Kentucky Gaseous Diffusion Plant

9 Control Center of Paducah Plant

10 Gaseous Diffusion Plant in France

11 More On Gaseous Diffusion Original process used in WWII at Oak Ridge, Tenn. facility Original process used in WWII at Oak Ridge, Tenn. facility Much more expensive to operate than centrifuges Much more expensive to operate than centrifuges Needs up to 1400 stages to get reactor grade fuel Needs up to 1400 stages to get reactor grade fuel Oak Ridge K25 plant begun in 1943

12 Portsmouth, Ohio Diffusion Plant

13 Uranium Enrichment Capacity France diffusion 10,800 France diffusion 10,800 Germany-Netherlands-UKcentrifuge 5,850 Germany-Netherlands-UKcentrifuge 5,850 Japancentrifuge 900 Japancentrifuge 900 USAdiffusion 8,000 USAdiffusion 8,000 Russiacentrifuge 20,000 Russiacentrifuge 20,000 China mostly centrifuge 1,000-13000 China mostly centrifuge 1,000-13000 Pakistancentrifuge 5 Pakistancentrifuge 5

14 Laser Process Newer process under development in Australia promises to be cheaper Newer process under development in Australia promises to be cheaper Called SILEX Called SILEX Licensed by US Licensed by US Details are secret Details are secret

15 Bushehr, Iran Nuclear Plant

16 What is this?


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