Presentation on theme: "Common air pollution Control equipment : Method of removal Particulate Matter 1. Gravitational Settling Chamber 2. Cyclone 3. Inertial Dust Separator 4."— Presentation transcript:
Common air pollution Control equipment : Method of removal Particulate Matter 1. Gravitational Settling Chamber 2. Cyclone 3. Inertial Dust Separator 4. Wet Scrubber 5. Bag Filter 6. Electrostatic Precipitator Removal of Gaseous Impurities 1. Absorption 2. Adsorption 3. Condensation 4. Combustion
Gravitational Settling Chamber: - The settling chamber is the simplest type of equipment used for the collection of solid particles. - These are mainly used for the removal of larger particles > 40 micron. - It consist of chamber in which carrier gas velocity is reduced so as to allow particulate to settle out of the moving stream under the action of gravity.. - Polluted gas enter from the inlet where velocity is reduced by gravitational force and particulate matter start settling down and clean gas emit from outlet.
2. Cyclone : Cyclone employ centrifugal force to separate smaller particles those can’t be removed by gravitational force. Rotaing motion of the gas stream generates a centrifugal force. - Cyclone separator may be used at high temperature or at high pressure for wide range of particles size. - Cyclone have an efficiency range from 60 to 90 % but may not effectively remove particles of less then 20 micron size. Cyclone Collector: - When the dust ladden air enter tangentially at the inlet point under the influence of centrifugal force by spinning gas, the solid particles thrown to the wall of cyclone as gas spiral upward at the inside of cyclone. - The particles are slide down to the wall of cyclone. - The outlet pipe for the purified gas is a cylindrical opening at top.
Installation of Cyclone
Inertial Separator This type of control equipment includes all collectors which utilize relatively greater inertia of the dispersoid to effect the particulate – gas separation e.g Dust Trap Dust Trap - It is a common type of inertial separator. - In this device the dust laden gas is introduced into a central pipe (cylindrical ) and is made to undergo a change in direction by Dust because of inertia, settle in conical chamber.
Wet Scrubber: Wet collector remove particulate matter from gas stream by intercepting the particles into liquid droplet directly on contact.- Gaseous particles can be easily removed to 20 micron size particles are removed in these units. - Generally water is used as scrubbing liquid. Example are: 1. Spray Tower 2. Wet Cyclone Scrubber 3. Ventury Scrubber 4. Multiple Cyclone
1.Spray Tower - It can be used to remove both gaseous and particulate matter contamination. - As the gas flow upward the particles of the gas collide with spray water and these particles are settled by gravity to the chamber. 2. Cyclone Scrubber: - In a cyclone scrubber, polluted air is tangentially swirled around whereas water sprinkles into the chamber continuously. - In a simple wet cyclone scrubber high pressure spray nozzle located in various place within a cyclone chamber generate a fine spray that intercept small particles entrained in swirled gas - Particles are thrown to the wall by centrifugal force.
Venturi Scrubber: In a ventury scrubber high velocity (60 – 100 m/s ) at throat section atomise the liquid. - Particles strike against moving droplets because of the velocity difference between the droplets and particles, droplet accelerate in throat section. - The action is not complete in throat section but continue even afterward till settling. - Hence throat length is important for travel and collection of particles. - This type of scrubbing device is very efficient for the removal of particulates greater than 0.5 microns, due to better capture between high velocity collision particles and atomised water droplet.
Advantages of Wet Collector: - Reliable with high collection efficiency. - Highly soluble gases like NH3, HCl, HF are also removed. - Remove corrosive chemical dusts that may be difficult for removal in filters or electrostatic precipitators.
Bag Filter or Fabric Filter : - Filtration is one of the most reliable, efficient and economic method by which particulate matter can be removed from gases. - These filter consist of porous structure material, fabric or fibrous matter which has the property to retain the particulate matter as the dirty gas passes through the void or interstitial spaces or layers of filter. - The gas entering through the inlet pipe strikes a baffle plate which causes the larger particles to fall into hopper due to gravity. - The carrier gas then flow upwards through fabric leaving the fabric leaving the particulate matter on the inside of the bag. - Bag are usually of 15 cm diameter and 3 m long and maintain 0.5 to 1 m /minutes flow velocities. - Common material used are cotton (natural, fiber, cellulose), wool, nylon, telfon, fiber glass and stainless steel. - The efficeincy is estimated to be 95 – 99 % for removing fine particles (I micron size). --j-
Electrostatic Precipitator: - These are widely used in cement, power and metallurgical industries because of their capabilities to treat large gas flows, under high temperature and corrosive atmosphere and remove submicron particles. - In electrostatic precipitator the gas stream is passed between two electrode, across which a high potential difference is maintained. - Out of two electrode one is discharging electrode and other one is collecting electrode. - Because of high potential difference and the discharge system a powerful ionisinsg field is formed. Potential as high as 100 kilovolts are used. - Consequnetly, ionization creates an active glow zone (blue electic discharge) called the corona glow.
Electro- static Precipitator
Electro static precipitator
The following steps are involved in the functioning of an electro static precipitator: 1. Impart electrostatic charge to particles. 2. Create electric field in the flow region. 3. Particles develop force of attraction. 4. Particulate migrate towards oppositely charged electrode. 5. Electrode collect the impurities. 6. Particulate dust is removed by shaking or raping electrode. 7. The dry particulate matter is collected in the hopper below. Basically two type of precipitator are available 1. Pipe Type electrostatic precipitator 2. Plate Type electrostatic precipitator Corona forms between an active high voltage electrode. It is a mechanism of formation of ions in the gas. Dust particles are carried aut through this space, instantaneously become highly charged and immediately migrate and attach to a collecting electrode The efficiency of ESP is almost 100 %,ESP have a number of mechanical part and electrical component and so have a number of operational and maintenance problem.
Control of Gaseous Impurities 1. Absorption 2. Adsorption 3. Condensation 4. Combustion 1. Absorption: By selecting suitable absorbent solution it is possible to absorb even minute traces of many gases and vapour of oxide of N2, S, H2S, HCl, and ammonia. - It is suitable method for collection of gaseous and vapour pollutant. - Pure water : collecting some gasoues pollutant like HF - Alkaline solution : absorbing acidic gases - Hydrocarbon : absorbed in oil
Effluent gas pass through packed beds or liquid absorbent so that pollutant are removed. Absorption or scrubbing is a diffusion process in which gas molecule are transferred into a liquid phase. When soluble gas contacts solvent liquid, mass transfer take place due to difference in pressure of soluble gas in gas mixture and vapour pressure of solute gas in liquid film within gas. Water is good solvent for NH3, HCl, HF, Cl2, NOx etc. SO2 may be absorbed using lime or limestone H2S is absorbed by iron oxide granules bed.
Adsorption: - Air or gaseous pollutant may be removed by adsorption colum which may contain absorbing material such as Activated Carbon or Silica. - Activated carbon (manufactured using coconut shell, bituminous coal or petroleum residues), siliceous compound ( silica gels, fullers, and diatomaceous earth, synthetic zeolites) alumina anhydrous CaSO4, Ca or Mg silicate are used too. It is best dealing for organic vapour. - Iron oxide bed removes benezene and H2S. - Silica gel absobs oxide of N2 and Bromine.
Condensation : - Condensation of a vapour from dirty air is possible either by increasing pressure or controlling the temperature. It is suitable material with low pressures at moderately high temperature, such as hydrocarbons. - In a condenser, coolant is circulated in the tubes. - Air vapor stream circulates outside the tubes and vapor condensed on the cool surface and drop as liquid. - This is collected at the bottom of a condenser.
Combustion - Incinerator are simple, safe and reliable. They are widely used for combustion of a variety of pollutant gases. - In this process pollutant are exposed to high temperature > 650 0C. - CO and hydrocarbons are oxidized into carbon dioxide at higher temperature (>650 0C). - Combustion of organics and gases, with the aid of auxillary fuel and a catalyst enhances kinetics of combustion.