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1 ACVANCED DETECTORS IN PARTICLE PHYSICS AND APPLICATIONS Experiments in HEP Semiconductor Detectors Gaseous Detectors Scintillation Counters Application.

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Presentation on theme: "1 ACVANCED DETECTORS IN PARTICLE PHYSICS AND APPLICATIONS Experiments in HEP Semiconductor Detectors Gaseous Detectors Scintillation Counters Application."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 ACVANCED DETECTORS IN PARTICLE PHYSICS AND APPLICATIONS Experiments in HEP Semiconductor Detectors Gaseous Detectors Scintillation Counters Application in other Fields Summary and Conclusions APPLICATION IN OTHER FIELDS SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS GASEOUS DETECTORS SCINTILLATION COUNTERS SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS EXPERIMENTS IN HEP Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002 Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen

2 2 NEW EXP‘S AND ACCELERATORS Basic Questions of Particle Physics:  CP-Violation:B-Factories at KEK and SLAC, Large Hadron Collider at CERN  Higgs search:Experiments ATLAS and CMS at LHC, e+e- Linear Collider TESLA at DESY Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002 Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen EXPERIMENTS IN HEP SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS GASEOUS DETECTORS SCINTILLATION COUNTERS APPLICATION IN OTHER FIELDS SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS TESLA

3 3 RUNNING AND PLANNED EXP‘S EXPERIMENT TYPE NAMEINTERACTING PARTICLES ACCELERATORSITE FIXED TARGETHERA-B LHC-B Proton-Nucleon HERA LHC DESY CERN COLLIDERBES H1, ZEUS CDF, D0 BaBar, BELLE ATLAS, CMS TESLA-Det. Electron-Positron Positron-Proton Proton-Proton Electron-Positron Proton-Proton Electron-Positron BEPC HERA Tevatron PEP-II, KEKB LHC TESLA IHEP DESY Fermilab SLAC, KEK CERN DESY ? Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002 Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen EXPERIMENTS IN HEP SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS GASEOUS DETECTORS SCINTILLATION COUNTERS APPLICATION IN OTHER FIELDS SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

4 4 DETECTION OF RARE PROCESSES Requirements for Higgs Search:  Superimposed collisions, here 18 pp interactions in CMS Silicon Tracker,  Occupancy of ~1% with Silicon Pixel Detectors,  Precise measurement of 4 well visible muons. µ µ µ µ Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002 Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen EXPERIMENTS IN HEP SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS GASEOUS DETECTORS SCINTILLATION COUNTERS APPLICATION IN OTHER FIELDS SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

5 5 1 Tracking Detectors: Pixel, Silicon Strip, Gas Microstrip, Drift Cell Tubes, Drift Chambers 2 Electromagnetic Calorimeters: Plastic Scintillator / Lead Sandwich, Liquid Argon, Crystals 3 Hadronic Calorimeters: Plastic Scintillator / Iron or Copper Sandwich, Liquid Argon 4 Muon Detectors: Drift - Tubes, Cathode Strip Chambers, Resistive Plate Chambers DETECTORS IN HEP EXP‘S Fixed Target Exp: Collider Exp: Interaction of particles in diff. detector components: Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002 Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen EXPERIMENTS IN HEP SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS GASEOUS DETECTORS SCINTILLATION COUNTERS APPLICATION IN OTHER FIELDS SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

6 6 FIXED TARGET EXP: HERA-B Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002 Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen EXPERIMENTS IN HEP SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS GASEOUS DETECTORS SCINTILLATION COUNTERS APPLICATION IN OTHER FIELDS SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  detector designed for CP violation studies in B-Meson system  run at interaction rates > 30 MHz, > 100 charged particles every 96 nsec  harsh radiation conditions for tracking detectors:  Si – Strip Vertex Detector  MSGC Inner Tracker  hexogonal Drift Tubes Outer Tracker  conditions very similar to LHC

7 7 COLLIDER EXP: ATLAS, CMS Muon Detector Hadron Calorimeter Electromagnetic Calorimeter Tracking Detectors Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002 Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen EXPERIMENTS IN HEP SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS GASEOUS DETECTORS SCINTILLATION COUNTERS APPLICATION IN OTHER FIELDS SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS CMS cut-out ATLAS CMS

8 8 COLLIDER EXP: TESLA Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002 Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen EXPERIMENTS IN HEP SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS GASEOUS DETECTORS SCINTILLATION COUNTERS APPLICATION IN OTHER FIELDS SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Hadron Calorimeter Scintillator/Iron Sandwich, 200 kChannel Electromagnetic Calorimeter Si-Diode Pads/Tungsten, 32 Mio Chann, Time Projection Chamber 1.2 Mio Chann. Vertex Detector VTX CCD or Hybrid Pixel, 800 Mio ch. Intermediate Tracker Si-Pixel and –Strip, 40.3 Mio ch. Muon Detector Plastic Streamer Tubes and RPC, 75 kCh.

9 9 SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002 Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen EXPERIMENTS IN HEP SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS GASEOUS DETECTORS SCINTILLATION COUNTERS APPLICATION IN OTHER FIELDS SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Silicon Strip:  Thickness Si-Crystals: ~300 µm  Energy Loss of Minimum Ionising Particle per Electron/Hole Pair: = 3.6 eV (at 300°K), (in Gases: eV)  Total e-/hole pairs: ~25000  Drift-Time: ~8 ns e-, 25 ns holes  Sensitive Area: ~70 x 50 mm²  Number Strips: ~1200  Strip Distance: ~50 µm  Resolution: ~10-20 µm Pixel Detectors:  Hybrid Pixel:  mature technology  Charged Coupled Device:  not rad. Hard, slow (5 MHz)  Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors:  originated from CMOS camera  DEPFET:  integrated amplification

10 10 Vertex Detector System: HERA-B Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002 Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen EXPERIMENTS IN HEP SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS GASEOUS DETECTORS SCINTILLATION COUNTERS APPLICATION IN OTHER FIELDS SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  Measurement:J/Psi decay vertices, impact parameters of particles  Working:at up to 40 MHz, high radiation similar LHC  Vertex Detector:64 double-sided Si-microstrip detectors, arranged in 8 stations, 4 quadrants around p-beam  Detectors:sensitive area: 50 x 70 mm², 280 µm thick  Performance:o.k. up to 3 x 10**14 MIPS/mm²  Readout:analog chip HELIX

11 11 Tracking Detectors: ATLAS, CMS Pixel Detectors:  3 barrels, 2 x 4 discs  2.14 m² sensitive area  ~ 80 million channels Silicon-Strip (SCT):  4 barrels, 2 x 9 discs  ~ 60 m² sensitive area  ~ 6.2 million channels Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002 Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen EXPERIMENTS IN HEP SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS GASEOUS DETECTORS SCINTILLATION COUNTERS APPLICATION IN OTHER FIELDS SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ATLAS CMS Transition Radiation Tracker TRT: straw tubes in barrel and end-caps 2 Barrels 2 x 2 End-cap Pixel Detectors:  ~ 0.6 m² sensitive area  ~ 45 million channels Silicon-Strip (SST):  ~ 210 m² sensitive area  ~ 9.6 million channels ¼ of longitudinal view 10 Barrels 12 End-cap Discs

12 12 Tracking Detectors: TESLA Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002 Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen EXPERIMENTS IN HEP SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS GASEOUS DETECTORS SCINTILLATION COUNTERS APPLICATION IN OTHER FIELDS SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS VTX (multi-layered micro-vertex detector):  cylinders in barrel region  3 options:  CCDs: 5 layers, ~ 800 Mpixels,  hybrid pixels: 3 layers  CMOS pixels:  R&D program for all 3 ¼ of longitudinal view Intermediate Tracker:  SIT:  2 cylinders in barrel region  double sided strip detectors  sensitive area: 1.7 m²  FTD (discs in forward region):  2 x 3 discs pixel detectors: 0.6 m²  2 x 4 discs strip detectors: 2.0 m² TESLA Tracking Det. VTX - CCDs

13 13 DRIFT CELLS Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002 Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen EXPERIMENTS IN HEP SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS GASEOUS DETECTORS SCINTILLATION COUNTERS APPLICATION IN OTHER FIELDS SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Honeycomb Drift Cell Assembling Honeycomb Drift Cells (HERA-B Outer Tracker):  cell diameter:5 and 10 mm  cell occupancy: < 20% (20 cm from p-beam, 40 MHz rate)  modules: ~ 1000 with <= 128 cells (segmented)  max. length: 4.5 m  readout channels: ~ 117 k  gas mixture:Ar / CF4 / CO2, (65 / 30 / 5)  no aging problems after foil coating with gold Production of 10 mm modules (IHEP and Tsinghua Univ.) Straw Tube Drift Cells (ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker):  cell diameter:4 mm  straw length:150 cm (barrel), 39 and 55 cm (end-caps)  readout channels: ~ 53 k (barrel), ~ 320 k (end-caps)  gas mixture:Xe / CF4 / CO2, (70 / 20 / 10) High Pressure Aluminum Drift Tubes (ATLAS Muon Detector):  cell diameter:30 mm  max. tube length:6 m  readout channels: ~1.3 million  gas mixture:Ar / N2 / CH4, (91 / 4 / 5)

14 14 Micro-Strip Gas Chamber: HERA-B Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002 Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen EXPERIMENTS IN HEP SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS GASEOUS DETECTORS SCINTILLATION COUNTERS APPLICATION IN OTHER FIELDS SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS GEM Rad. Damage MSGCs General:  success of Multiwire Proportional Chamber  fills gap between wire chambers and Si-strip  Anodes, Cathodes: thin metal strips on glass substrate  Granularity: 10 x better than wire systems  Resolution: better than 40 µm  Rate Capability: ~ 100 kHz per mm² HERA-B GEM MSGCs:  Inner Tracker: 7 stations, 40 planes of 4 detectors (48x44cm² / plane)  largest system: 120 kChannels  original MSGCs: discharges at high rates, (<= 10**6 part. / cm² / s) heavy ionising alpha-particles damage of electrodes  solution: GEM - Gas Electron Multiplier (thin foil with holes) 1 st amplification in GEM, lower voltage between electrodes 50 µ drift voltage 2500 V cathode voltage 520 V GEM voltage difference (upper – lower) 450 V MSGC Alternatives:  Double GEM:  Micromegas: thin-gap parralel plate counter  Micro-CAT: hole in cathode foil, above anode  Micro-dot chamber: pixel device based on silicon Anode Cathode

15 15 SCINTILLATING CRYSTALS Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002 Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen EXPERIMENTS IN HEP SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS GASEOUS DETECTORS SCINTILLATION COUNTERS APPLICATION IN OTHER FIELDS SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Electromagnetic Calorimeters in new experiments require:  best energy resolution for e, gamma, pi-zero: crystals  position measurement: fine lateral granularity  operation in magnet field (1 – 4 Tesla):photo diode NaI(Tl)PlasticBGOCsI(Tl)CsIPbWO4LSO Radiation Length [cm] 2.59~ Decay Time [nsec] Peak Emission [nm] Light Yield [gammas/MeV] 40 k~ 14 k~ 4 k~ 18 k~ 2.8 k~ 0.8 k~ 30 k Crystal Properties and Experiments ExperimentsCrystal Ball 4pi, 732 crystals 15.7 Xo HERA-B Plastic / W, Plastic / Pb sandwich L3 10k crystals BaBar, BELLE, TEXONO: 0.5 t crystals Neutrino osc. at reactor KTeV 3100 crystals 27 Xo CMS 75 k crystals Alice developed for PET Positron Emission Tomography

16 16 CMS ECAL: PbWO4 Crystals Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002 Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen EXPERIMENTS IN HEP SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS GASEOUS DETECTORS SCINTILLATION COUNTERS APPLICATION IN OTHER FIELDS SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS CMS PbWO4 Crystal ECAL Avalanche Photodiode BarrelEnd-Cap Choose of Lead Tungstate:  very compact less material cheaper  fast enough for 25 nsec LHC bunch crossing  poor light yield less important  crystals of high quality  production in Bogorodytsk / Russia and by: Shanghai Institute of Ceramics  radiation dose up to 0.15 Gy / h  energy resolution sigma/E = 0.4 % (E = 280 GeV)  special avalanche photodiode (APD) works in 4 Tesla magnet field

17 17 APPLICATION IN OTHER FIELDS Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002 Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen EXPERIMENTS IN HEP SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS GASEOUS DETECTORS SCINTILLATION COUNTERS APPLICATION IN OTHER FIELDS SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS New generation of detectors progress in:  imaging  data treatment  miniaturisation  energy resolution  radiation hardness  lower noise  lower costs All techniques ready for export to other fields as e.g.:  astro – particle physics  bio – medical applications 

18 18 Application of Si-Strip Detectors Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002 Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen EXPERIMENTS IN HEP SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS GASEOUS DETECTORS SCINTILLATION COUNTERS APPLICATION IN OTHER FIELDS SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Si – Strip Detectors in Space Experiments:  Alpha-Magnetic-Spectrometer (AMS-02):  will be installed 2003 in International Space Station (400 km altitude)  measurement of cosmics particles  search for antimatter, can reach: anti-helium / helium = 10**-9  search for cosmics dark matter  Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST):  satellite will be launched 2005  looks for gamma rays in 20 MeV – 300 GeV range  Si-Strip tracker for: reconstruction of gamma-ray direction by measuring conversion e+e- pair  Properties of Si – Strip Trackers: No. ChannelsReadout PitchStrip WidthArea AMS - 02~ µm27.5 µm 7 m² GLAST~ µm 74 m²

19 19 Application of Si-Strip Detectors Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002 Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen EXPERIMENTS IN HEP SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS GASEOUS DETECTORS SCINTILLATION COUNTERS APPLICATION IN OTHER FIELDS SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Si – Strip Detectors in Medicine:  Main requirements are:  size large enough to cover the Region of Interest  resolution diagnostically adequate  patient dose clinically acceptable  Prototype silicon microstrip detector for dental imaging ( from P.F.van der Stelt, IWORID Amsterdam 8-12/9/2002)  300 µm double-sided silicon sensor (SINTEF, Oslo, Norway)  p-side 427 strips on a 50 µm pitch  n-side 128 strips on an 80µm pitch  effective area x cm 2  Performance detector study for mammography imaging ( P.F.van der Stelt et al., NIM A457 (2001) 653)  detector size: ~ 24 x 18 cm², requires tiling of sensors  detection efficiency ~ 75% for 1mm thick silicon  high contrast details of 300 µm detectable  Si – Pixel detector for mammography imaging (S.R.Amendolia et al., INFN Pisa, Italy, IWORID Amsterdam 8-12/9/2002)  pixel size: 170 x 170 µm², 300 µm thick Si – detector  further improvement under development Film,12 bit Si-Pixel detector 6x6cm² scan)

20 20 Application of Scintillating Crystals Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002 Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen EXPERIMENTS IN HEP SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS GASEOUS DETECTORS SCINTILLATION COUNTERS APPLICATION IN OTHER FIELDS SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS CsI Calorimeter in Space Experiment:  Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST):  CsI calorimeter for measurement of gamma energy (20 MeV – 300 GeV)  8 layers of 12 bars: 8.6 Xo  each bar has 2.0 x 2.8 x 35.1 cm³ Scintillating Crystal Detectors in Medicine:  Flat X-ray Detectors for Medical Imaging: (from M. Overdick, Philips Research Laboratories, Aachen, Germany, IWORID 2002, Amsterdam, 11/9/2002)  Scintillator: CsI(Tl) needle crystals  thickness 550µm, good X-ray absorption, act as light-guides  crystals connected to photodiode array  field of view: 18 x 18 cm² crystals Photodiode array Dynamic Detector: Integris Allura Heart Arteris

21 21 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002 Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen EXPERIMENTS IN HEP SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS GASEOUS DETECTORS SCINTILLATION COUNTERS APPLICATION IN OTHER FIELDS SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Detector developments for advanced particle physics experiments:  large systems of high complexity  mass production of detectors and readout electronics reduces costs  strong impact on other fields:  astro - particle physics  bio – medicine  material research  These fields have created their own life with strong activities More details you will find in: International Workshop on Radiation Imaging, IWORID Amsterdam 8-12/9/2002

22 22 COLLIDER EXP: CMS Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002 Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen EXPERIMENTS IN HEP SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS GASEOUS DETECTORS SCINTILLATION COUNTERS APPLICATION IN OTHER FIELDS SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

23 23 DEPFET DEPFET – DEpleted P-channel Field Effect Transistor Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002 Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen EXPERIMENTS IN HEP SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS GASEOUS DETECTORS SCINTILLATION COUNTERS APPLICATION IN OTHER FIELDS SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS p-FET (JFET or MOSFET) on depleted n-Si bulk local potential minimum for electrons  ‘internal gate‘ current change prop. to number of charges in the ‘internal gate‘  I > 200 pA / electron nondestructive readout charge integration and storage in ON and OFF state reset through clear contact, supported by clear gate backside illuminated

24 24 Front end chip candidates Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002 Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen EXPERIMENTS IN HEP SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS GASEOUS DETECTORS SCINTILLATION COUNTERS APPLICATION IN OTHER FIELDS SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ExperimentChipProcessPipe line depth Fast trigger Principle Belle SVD1VA11.2 mm--Continuous shaping analog Belle SVD2VATAAMS 0.35 mm-YESContinuous shaping analog. BaBarAtoMHoneywell 0.8 mm193 cell-Time-over-Threshold CLEOFE/BEHoneywell--On-hybrid ADC, digital ZeusHelixAMS (non rad-hard)128 cell-Analog CDF IISVX3Honeywell47 cell-FE/BE architecture, double correlated sampling, periodic reset, Digital D0SVX2 CMSAPV25IBM 0.25 mm192 cell-Analogue ATLASABCD(?)132 cell-Binary LHCbSICA-VELO Beetle DMILL 0.25 mm160 cell-Analog From talk of T. Tsuboyama (KEK) on Si-Vertex detectors, 8/2002:

25 25 SILICON DETECTORS Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002 Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen EXPERIMENTS IN HEP SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS GASEOUS DETECTORS SCINTILLATION COUNTERS APPLICATION IN OTHER FIELDS SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

26 26 RESISTIVE PLATE CHAMBERS Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002 Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen EXPERIMENTS IN HEP SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS GASEOUS DETECTORS SCINTILLATION COUNTERS APPLICATION IN OTHER FIELDS SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS


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