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Regents Review Day 6 Unit 11: Human Body Unit 12: Man’s Impact.

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Presentation on theme: "Regents Review Day 6 Unit 11: Human Body Unit 12: Man’s Impact."— Presentation transcript:

1 Regents Review Day 6 Unit 11: Human Body Unit 12: Man’s Impact

2 99.Organs and systems in the human body help maintain homeostasis (constant, stable, internal environment) a.Circulatory system – designed to transport materials in the blood to every cell in the body b.Endocrine system – produces hormones to regulate chemical levels and cell responses c.Nervous system – involves the nerves, spinal cord, and brain controlling muscle movements d.Immune system – removes disease causing pathogens

3 e.Excretory system – regulates water balance and removes wastes from the body f.Respiratory system – helps regulate and exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide g.Digestive system – digests and absorbs nutrients h.Reproductive system – produce sex cells (sperm or egg) and produce offspring

4 100.Enzymes in the digestive system are responsible for the hydrolysis (breakdown) of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids a.Enzymes are catalysts that speed up chemical reactions occur and are specific to specific molecules b.Enzymes function best at specific temperatures and pH levels

5 101.Diffusion occurs throughout the body a.Capillaries – O 2 and nutrients diffuse out of the blood into cells and CO 2 & wastes diffuse out into the blood stream b.Villi ­– specialized cells in the small intestine that absorb nutrients from digested food and the molecules diffuse into the blood stream c.Nephrons – cells in the kidney that filter out wastes from the blood through diffusion d.Aveoli – cells in the lungs allow for the diffusion of O 2 into the blood and CO ­2­­ out of the blood

6 102.The right side of the heart is the pump that moves deoxygenated blood to the lungs and the left side of the heart is the pump that moves oxygenated blood to the body’s cells a.veins carry blood toward the heart b.arteries carry blood away from the heart

7 103.White blood cells fight pathogens in the body

8 104.Antibodies are proteins produced by white blood cells in the human body that attach to invading pathogens and clump them together – they are attracted to their matching Antigens a.Antigens are proteins on pathogens that the body recognizes as foreign i.All cells have antigens ii.Immune system recognizes cells that have self antigens vs. pathogen antigens

9 b.Antibodies are Y-shaped proteins that bind to antigens and tag them for destruction by white blood cells (they have a specific shape for each specific antigen) c.Immune system forms a memory so if the same pathogen enters the body again, antibodies can be created right away to tag and destroy the pathogen before it cause problems

10 105.AIDS is a disease caused by the HIV virus a.The virus infects and kills white blood cells i.If White Blood Cells are destroyed, the immune system cannot protect the body from any pathogen. ii.People with AIDS get opportunistic infections and can die from them (ex. pneumonia)

11 106.When a person gets an organ transplant, the cells of the implanted organ have antigens that the body recognizes as foreign invading cells, so the immune system responds by destroying (rejecting) the organ. a.Immunosuppressant drugs are used to keep the new body from rejecting the organ, but they make the person more susceptible to disease

12 107.Vaccines are weakened forms of pathogens or antigens from a pathogen a.Stimulates an immune response so the body recognizes the pathogen quicker when there is an actual infection b.If that pathogen ever enters the body again, the immune system will know how to fight it off

13 108.The nervous system and endocrine system allow cells within multicellular organisms to communicate and coordinate their actions a.Nervous System communication is fast and short lasting i.Electrical impulses travel down neurons

14 b.Endocrine System communication is slow and long lasting i.Messages are sent through the blood stream in the form of Hormones ii.Hormones are specific messenger molecules that travel through the blood and attach to receptor proteins on the surface of target cells iii.Work like lock and key – specific hormones only affect specific target cells iv.Hormones regulate the reproductive systems

15 109.Diabetes is a disease that is due to the under- secretion of insulin by the pancreas, which lowers the level of glucose in the blood a.If a person has diabetes, their cells cannot make/recognize insulin so Glucose builds up in the blood (so cells cannot use it to make ATP) b.A person would need to take Insulin to help regulate their blood Glucose levels

16 110.Hormonal feedback mechanisms maintain homeostasis in the human body a.FSH, estrogen, LH, and progesterone regulate the menstrual cycle b.GH – controls growth of bones and muscle tissue

17 111.The kidneys regulate urine composition and water balance in the blood by filtering and reabsorbing molecules a.Sweating is a form of excretion that is involved in maintaining body temperature homeostasis

18 112.Stomates in plant cells maintain homeostasis in plant leaves by regulating gas exchange and water loss a.Stomates are openings on the lower surface of a plant leaf b.2 Guard cells control the opening and closing of each stomata c.On a hot day, stomates close to retain water d.At night, stomates open to exchange water and gas

19 113.An increase in human population has caused a depletion of the world’s finite resources and an increase in environmental damage a.Finite resources cannot be restored in short periods of time (fresh water, coal, oil)

20 114.Environmental pollution and destruction of habitats have increased as the human population on the earth grow

21 115.Pollution by humans has disrupted the balance in many ecosystems and subsequently has endangered many species a.Endangered species that become extinct can never be replaced

22 116.Acid rain is a major environmental problem caused by factory emissions containing nitrogen and sulfur

23 117.Chemical pesticides and wastes that enter into the environment affect wildlife and may cause a decrease in biodiversity a.The toxic chemicals in pesticides build up in the environment and in the organisms in the environment, with the top carnivores having the highest amount of toxicity

24 118.Destruction of the ozone layer by pollution results in more ultraviolet rays reaching the Earth’s surface – caused by the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) a.Ultraviolet rays destroy the chlorophyll in plants and mutate DNA in organisms b.An increase in human skin cancer is due to an increase in UV rays

25 119.Increased levels of greenhouse gases in the troposphere have led to global warming a.Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) & Methane (CH 4 ) are the two gases that are most responsible for global warming b.CO 2 is from auto emissions and burning fossil fuels

26 120.Importing species (invasive species) from other ecosystems into an area may cause an imbalance in the food web and environmental destruction a.Invasive species have no natural predators, therefore they do not have any limitations when they compete with native species b.Foreign species may over-consume food sources and water and disrupt the ecosystem c.Zebra Mussels and Purple Loosestrife are examples in our region

27 121.When the population size is too large, competition for resources increases between members of the species

28 122.Carrying capacity is the maximum number of individuals the that can survive on the resources present in the area a.Some individuals do not compete as well as others and die, restoring equilibrium to the area and showing Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection – Survival of the Fittest

29 123.Biological controls are better than chemical controls for regulating the size of populations a.Includes the use of natural predators to catch and eat undesirable organisms b.This limits chemicals from entering food chains and disrupting ecosystems c.But it can also introduce invasive species into an environment

30 124.Chemical Pesticides permanently damage the environment, but only provide a short-term solution to insect population problems a.Biological Magnification - pollutants are picked up by an organism and is not broken down or eliminated from its body, collecting in body tissues b.May also harm other organisms in the environment c.Select for organisms that have a resistance the chemical used, creating a more fit pest

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