Presentation on theme: "Covalent Bonding Bonding models for methane, CH4. Models are NOT reality. Each has its own strengths and limitations."— Presentation transcript:
1 Covalent BondingBonding models for methane, CH4. Models are NOT reality. Each has its own strengths and limitations.
2 The Octet Rule and Covalent Compounds Covalent compounds tend to form so that each atom, by sharing electrons, has an octet of electrons in its highest occupied energy level.Covalent compounds involve atoms of nonmetals only.The term “molecule” is used exclusively for covalent bonding
3 The Octet Rule: The Diatomic Fluorine Molecule 1s2s2pEach has seven valence electronsF1s2s2pFF
4 The Octet Rule: The Diatomic Oxygen Molecule 1s2s2pEach has six valence electronsO1s2s2pOO
5 The Octet Rule: The Diatomic Nitrogen Molecule 1s2s2pEach has five valence electronsN1s2s2pNN
6 Lewis StructuresLewis structures show how valence electrons are arranged among atoms in a molecule.Lewis structures Reflect the central idea that stability of a compound relates to noble gas electron configuration.Shared electrons pairs are covalent bonds and can be represented by two dots (:) or by a single line ( - )
7 The HONC Rule Hydrogen (and Halogens) form one covalent bond Oxygen (and sulfur) form two covalent bondsOne double bond, or two single bondsNitrogen (and phosphorus) form three covalent bondsOne triple bond, or three single bonds, or one double bond and a single bondCarbon (and silicon) form four covalent bonds.Two double bonds, or four single bonds, or a triple and a single, or a double and two singles
8 Completing a Lewis Structure -CH3Cl Make carbon the central atom (it wants the most bonds, 4)Add up available valence electrons:C = 4, H = (3)(1), Cl = 7 Total = 14Join peripheral atomsto the central atom with electron pairs.H..........HCCl....Complete octets onatoms other than hydrogen with remaining electronsH
9 Bond Length and Bond Energy Length (pm)Energy (kJ/mol)C - C154346C=C134612CC120835C - N147305C=N132615CN116887C - O143358C=O799CO1131072N - N145180N=N125418NN110942
10 ResonanceOccurs when more than one valid Lewis structure can be written for a particular molecule.These are resonance structures.The actual structure is an average ofthe resonance structures.