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Cellular Respiration Chapter 9. Respiratory System In which two openings does air enter the respiratory system? Nose and mouth What is another name for.

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Presentation on theme: "Cellular Respiration Chapter 9. Respiratory System In which two openings does air enter the respiratory system? Nose and mouth What is another name for."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cellular Respiration Chapter 9

2 Respiratory System In which two openings does air enter the respiratory system? Nose and mouth What is another name for the trachea? Where is it? Windpipe and located below epiglottis

3 Respiratory System The trachea branches into what two pipes as it enters the lungs? Bronchi What are the grapelike clusters at the end of the small tubes in the lungs? alveoli

4 WHAT IS AT EACH AREA?

5

6 What electron carriers are at “D” and at “E”?

7 “D” = NADH “E” = FADH 2 + NADH

8 What waste gas leaves at “H”?

9 Carbon Dioxide

10 What processes are at A, B, C?

11 A (glycolysis) B (Krebs cycle) C (ETC and chemiosmosis)

12 What is at “A” and “C”?

13 “A” = ETC “C” = ATP Synthase

14 Which electron carriers are in the form WITH the electrons? FAD+ NAD+ FADH 2 NADH FADH 2 NADH

15 NAD+ comes from: Niacin Vitamin C Cholesterol Vitamin E ANSWER: niacin

16 What is redox? HINT AND WHAT IT REPRESENTS Leo goes Ger Loss of electrons = oxidation Gain of Electrons = reduction

17 Which is it? C 6 H 12 O 6 converting to H 2 O is being: A. Oxidized B. Reduced ANSWER: Oxidized

18 Which is it? NAD+ converting to NADH is being: A. Oxidized B. Reduced ANSWER: Reduced

19 What process means without oxygen? A. aerobic B. anaerobic ANSWER: anaerobic

20 What does this enzyme do? DEHYDROGENASE? ANSWER: Removes hydrogen

21 Which Generates the Most ATP G. Glycolysis K. Krebs cycle E. ETC/Chemiosmosis ANSWER:E

22 Begins the oxidation of glucose G. Glycolysis K. Krebs cycle E. ETC/Chemiosmosis ANSWER: G

23 Occurs outside the mitochondrion G. Glycolysis K. Krebs cycle E. ETC/Chemiosmosis ANSWER: G

24 Produces 4 ATP/glucose by substrate-level phosphorylation (in the cytoplasm), but 2 ATP’s to get it started G. Glycolysis K. Krebs cycle E. ETC/Chemiosmosis ANSWER: G

25 Oxidizes NADH and FADH 2 to NAD+ and FAD G. Glycolysis K. Krebs cycle E. ETC/Chemiosmosis ANSWER: E

26 Carried out by enzymes in the matrix G. Glycolysis K. Krebs cycle E. ETC/Chemiosmosis ANSWER: K

27 Here e- and H+ combine with O 2 to form H 2 O G. Glycolysis K. Krebs cycle E. ETC/Chemiosmosis ANSWER: E

28 Occurs along inner mitochondrial membrane G. Glycolysis K. Krebs cycle E. ETC/Chemiosmosis ANSWER: E

29 Generates most of the CO 2 produced by cellular respiration G. Glycolysis K. Krebs cycle E. ETC/Chemiosmosis ANSWER: K

30 FADH 2 and NADH deliver H+ and e- to this stage G. Glycolysis K. Krebs cycle E. ETC/Chemiosmosis ANSWER: E

31 ATP synthase makes ATP G. Glycolysis K. Krebs cycle E. ETC/Chemiosmosis ANSWER: E

32 Reduces NAD+ and FAD, producing NADH and FADH 2 G. Glycolysis K. Krebs cycle E. ETC/Chemiosmosis ANSWER: K

33 What anaerobes can make ATP by fermentation OR aerobic respiration? In other words, with or without oxygen? Facultative anaerobes? Strict anaerobes? ANSWER: Facultative anaerobes

34 What is an organism that normally uses aerobic respiration to produce ATP, but it can generate ATP without oxygen, via alcoholic fermentation? HINTS: yeast, animals, plants? ANSWER: yeast

35 Fermentors replenish their NAD+ by using NADH to oxidize what acid? Citric Pyruvic Hydrochloric ANSWER: pyruvic (during fermentation)

36 When oxygen is scare, what part of humans can make ATP by lactic acid fermentation? HINTS: Liver, muscles, bacteria, or heart? ANSWER: muscles

37 Fermentation allows cells to make ATP in the absence of: Hydrogen Nitrogen Electrons Oxygen ANSWER: oxygen

38 For each molecule of glucose consumed, 2 molecules of pyruvic acid, 2 ATP, and 2 what form? NADH FADH 2 sucrose ANSWER:NADH

39 What are the waste products of alcoholic fermentation besides CO 2 ? oxygen Ethanol Isopropyl alcohol ANSWER: ethanol

40 What kind of fermentation is used to make cheese and yogurt? alcoholic Lactic acid ANSWER: lactic acid (like lactobacillus)

41 Fermentation makes how many ATP per molecule of glucose? ANSWER: 2

42 A cell can use what process to make a small amount of ATP (2), but it must somehow recycle its NAD+ supply? Glycolysis Krebs cycle ETC/chemiosmosis fermentation ANSWER: fermentation

43 Like anaerobic fermentation, alcoholic fermentation produces what gas as a waste product? Carbon dioxide Oxygen Nitrogen ANSWER: carbon dioxide

44 What kind of organisms require anaerobic conditions only? Facultative anaerobes? Strict anaerobes? ANSWER:strict anaerobes

45 What is the formula for cellular respiration? C 6 H 12 O O 2 6 CO H2O + ATP

46 What is the formula for cellular respiration? C 6 H 12 O O 2 6 CO H 2 O + ATP

47 When one molecule of glucose breaks down in cellular respiration, what percent ends up as ATP molecules? 100% 75% 40% 10% ANSWER: 40 %

48 What is another name for the Krebs cycle? A. citric acid cycle B. Calvin cycle C. carbon dioxide cycle D. glucose cycle ANSWER: citric acid cycle

49 What process means “sugar breaking” A. Krebs cycle B. fermentation C. glycolysis D. ETC ANSWER: glycolysis

50 Where does NAD+ come from? A. vitamin C B. vitamin E C. vitamin A D. vitamin B (niacin) ANSWER: niacin

51 What enzyme removes hydrogens? A. dehydrogenase B. lipase C. coenzyme A ANSWER: dehydrogenase

52 What does the ATP synthase make? A. glucose B. pyruvic acid C. ATP D. water ANSWER: ATP

53 What is the final electron acceptor of the ETC? A. oxygen B. NAD+ C. FAD ANSWER: oxygen

54 Where does it take place? 1. cellular respiration 2. Krebs cycle 3. lactic acid fermentation 4. alcoholic fermentation 5. gives off CO 2 as a waste product C = cytoplasm M = mitochondrion IM = inner membrane IMS = inter membrane space MX = matrix

55 Where does it take place? 1. cellular respiration 2. Krebs cycle 3. lactic acid fermentation 4. alcoholic fermentation 5. gives off CO 2 as a waste product M MX C MX

56 Where does it take place? ETC Glycolysis Citric acid cycle NADH and FADH 2 (gives up e-) H+ ions collect when NADH and FADH 2 give up e- C = cytoplasm M = mitochondrion IM = inner membrane IMS = inter membrane space MX = matrix

57 Where does it take place? ETC Glycolysis Citric acid cycle NADH and FADH 2 (gives up e-) H+ ions collect when NADH and FADH 2 give up e- IM C MX MX to IM IMS

58 What number? ATP to start glycolysis? ANSWER: 2 Total ATP made from glycolysis to pyruvic acid? ANSWER: 4

59 What number? Net ATP made from glucose to pyruvic acid? ANSWER: 2 ATP from Krebs cycle? ANSWER: 2

60 What number? ATP from ETC and chemiosmosis? ANSWER: 34 Total ATP from one glucose broken down (glycolysis + Krebs cycle + ETC/chemiosmosis) ? ANSWER:38

61 What number? Number of carbons in glucose? ANSWER: 6 Number of carbons in pyruvic acid? ANSWER: 3

62 What molecule is it? That grooms pyruvic acid to enter the Krebs cycle? ANSWER: coenzyme A

63 What molecule is it? That is the final (ultimate) electron acceptor? ANSWER: oxygen

64 What molecule is it? That forms when pyruvic acid breaks down in muscles (anaerobically)? ANSWER: lactic acid

65 What 2 molecules… That form when pyruvic acid breaks down in yeasts (anaerobically)? ANSWER: carbon dioxide and ethanol (ethyl alcohol)

66 What molecule is it? An electron carrier formed from glycolysis? ANSWER:NAD+ to NADH

67 What molecule is it? 2 electron carriers formed in the Krebs cycle? ANSWER: NADH and FADH 2

68 What molecule… Forms after H+ ions go through ATP synthase? ANSWER: ATP

69 What molecule is it? That is formed after H+ ions join with oxygen? ANSWER: H 2 O

70 What molecule is it? That forms as a one-carbon waste product in the Krebs cycle? ANSWER: carbon dioxide

71 What molecule is it? That is a 6-carbon molecule that forms temporarily in the Krebs cycle (2-C acetyl CoA and a 4-C compound)? ANSWER: citric acid

72 What molecule is it? That forms from niacin? ANSWER: NAD+

73 How Alike? How Different? Substrate-level phosphorylation Chemiosmosis Makes ATP Made in cytoplasm Makes ATP Made in a membrane

74 Is it ANAEROBIC OR AEROBIC? Glycolysis Krebs cycle Chemiosmosis Fermentation ETC Anaerobic Aerobic Anaerobic Aerobic

75 How can you tell if a compound was oxidized or reduced? HINTS: Not only Leo goes Ger, but also what other ion usually attaches to the e-? Reduced = gain electrons (ALSO GAIN Hydrogens) Oxidized = lost electrons (Also lost hydrogens)

76 Which is the form in each that is filled carrying e-? NAD+ or NADH? FADH 2 or FAD? ANSWER: NADH and FADH 2

77 As e- go down the ETC, do they do it…? Gradually (step by step) OR Quickly (all at once)? ANSWER: gradually

78 Pyruvic acid gets “groomed and conditioned” by what and to go where? ANSWER: BY Coenzyme A to go into the Krebs cycle

79 What is chemiosmosis? The diffusion of _____________ from ______ concentration to ___________ concentration across a ________________. ANSWER: H+ ions, High to Low, membrane

80 Where do the H+ ions collect after the NADH and FADH 2 dropped them off and they got pulled to here? ANSWER: Intermembrane Space


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