Presentation on theme: "2.5 Function Mrs. Page ESS 2014-2015. Assessment Statements: 2.5.1 Explain the role of producers, consumers and decomposers in the ecosystem. 2.5.2 Describe."— Presentation transcript:
2.5 Function Mrs. Page ESS
Assessment Statements: Explain the role of producers, consumers and decomposers in the ecosystem Describe photosynthesis and respiration in terms of inputs, outputs, and energy transformations Describe and explain the transfer and transformation of energy as it flows through the ecosystem Describe and explain the transfer and transformation of materials as the cycle within an ecosystem.
Transfers vs Transformations Transfers – flows through a system, often involve changes in location –Biomass moves from producers through food chain –Water moves from a river to the ocean –Energy moves from the sun to a plant leaf Transformations – interactions within a system and formation of new products or changes of state –Light energy is converted to chemical energy –Glucose is broken down into water and carbon dioxide
What is a system? System: a collection of matter, parts, or components which work together usually to perform a specific function. Systems often have inputs and outputs. For dynamic systems, by definition, one or more aspects of the system change with time. –Example of a simple dynamic system: bathtub or your ‘bank’ account.
How is an ecosystem a system? What are the primary parts that make up the storages in this system? What is the flows in this system? Why is it important to an ecosystem to have all of these parts? What would happen if these parts were missing or broken? What inputs & outputs do each of these components contribute to the system?
Producers Convert light energy into chemical energy Provide food for the base of the food chain/web Release oxygen into the atmosphere Consumers Pass energy from one organism to another Release nutrients back into the soil Explain the role of producers, consumers and decomposers in the ecosystem. Decomposers Release nutrients back into the soil Energy flows through ecosystems as organisms capture and store energy, then transfer it to organisms that eat them. These organisms are grouped into trophic levels...
Microorganisms and other detritivores Tertiary consumers Secondary consumers Primary consumers Primary producers Detritus Heat Sun Chemical cycling Key Energy flow
Trophic Levels: Route of energy flow - food chain - food web - pyramid of numbers Primary producers 100 J 1,000,000 J of sunlight 10 J 1,000 J 10,000 J Primary consumers Secondary consumers Tertiary consumers
Cellular respiration 100 J Growth (new biomass) Feces 200 J 33 J 67 J Plant material eaten by caterpillar Where does the energy go?
PRODUCERS What organisms are capable of trapping the energy of sunlight for conversion into the chemical energy or organic food? Plants Algae Some Bacteria These organisms are collectively referred to as producers. They provide food for themselves and for virtually all other organisms.
Cell wall – made of cellulose which strengthens the cell Cell membrane – controls what comes in and out Nucleus – controls what the cell does and stores information Large vacuole – stores water, supports cell Cytoplasm – Chemical reactions happen here Chloroplasts (containing chlorophyll) – this is needed for photosynthesis
Four things are needed for photosynthesis: Travels up from the roots WATER Enters the leaf through small holes on the underneath SUNLIGHT Specific wavelengths of light gives the plant energy CHLOROPHYLL The green stuff where the chemical reactions happen CARBON DIOXIDE
CELLULAR RESPIRATION Transformation of chemical energy in food into chemical energy cells can use: ATP These reactions proceed the same way in plants and animals. Process is called cellular respiration Occurs in the mitochondria of plant or animal cells Overall Reaction: C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 → 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O
Biogeochemical Cycles Nutrients exist in stores of chemical elements FOUR main reservoirs where these nutrients exist are: 1) Atmosphere – carbon (C) in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), nitrogen (N) in atmospheric nitrogen (N 2 ) 2) Lithosphere - the rocks – phosphates (PO 4 ), calcium in calcium carbonate, potassium in feldspar 3) Hydrosphere - the water (H 2 O) of oceans, lakes, streams and soil - nitrogen (N) in dissolved nitrate, (NO 3 ) carbon (C) in carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3 )
Living Organisms and Nutrient Cycles Living organisms are a reservoir (stores) in which carbon exists in carbohydrates (mainly cellulose) and fats, nitrogen in protein, and phosphorus in ATP
In studying cycling of water, carbon, nitrogen, and other chemicals, ecologists focus on four factors: –Biological importance of each chemical –Major reservoirs (stores) for each chemical –Forms in which each chemical is available or used by organisms –Key processes driving movement of each chemical through its cycle
Water (H 2 O) is essential to all organisms 97% of the biosphere’s water is stored in the oceans, 2% is in glaciers and polar ice caps, and 1% is in lakes, rivers, and groundwater Water moves by the processes of evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, and movement through surface and groundwater (transfers) The Water Cycle
Carbon-based organic molecules are essential to all organisms Carbon stores include fossil fuels, soils and sediments, solutes in oceans, plant and animal biomass, and the atmosphere CO 2 is taken up via photosynthesis and released via respiration Volcanoes and the burning of fossil fuels contribute CO 2 to the atmosphere The Carbon Cycle
Carbon Cycle 1. Stores – atmosphere (as CO 2 ), fossil fuels (oil, coal), durable organic materials (for example: cellulose). 2. Inputs – plants use CO 2 in photosynthesis; animals consume plants. 3. Outputs – plants and animals release CO 2 through respiration and decomposition; CO 2 is released as wood and fossil fuels are burned.
Nitrogen is a component of amino acids, proteins, and nucleic acids The main store of nitrogen is the atmosphere (N 2 ) 78% N 2 is converted to NH 3 via nitrogen- fixing bacteria N 2 is converted to NO 3 − via lightening Organic nitrogen is decomposed to (ammonium) NH 4 + by ammonification, and NH 4 + is decomposed to (nitrate) NO 3 – by nitrifying bacteria; NH 4 + and NO 3 – assimilated by plants Denitrifying bacteria convert NO 3 – back to N 2 The Nitrogen Cycle NOTE: N 2, NO, N 2 0, and NO 2 are not usable by plants (all but N 2 contribute to smog.) NO 3 - (nitrate) and NH 4 + (ammonium) forms of nitrogen are biologically usable
Nitrogen Cycle: Key Points Nitrogen is in the atmosphere as N 2 (78%) N 2 is an inert gas and cannot be used by plants or animals N 2 can be converted to a usable form via –Lightening –N-fixing plants and cyanobacteria –Industrial process (energy intensive) Nitrogen limits plant growth Nitrogen is easily lost from biological systems
List Some Examples of Transformations Examples of Transformations 1.Carbon cycle: Organic compounds to CO 2 (processes: respiration, decomposition, or fire) 2.Carbon cycle: CO 2 to organic compounds (process: photosynthesis) 3.Nitrogen cycle: N 2 to NO 3 (atmospheric nitrogen to plant utilizable nitrate) (process: N-fixation) 4.Nitrogen cycle: N 2 to NH 3 (plant utilizable ammonia) (process: Haber- Bosch Industrial N-fixation) 5.Water cycle: Liquid water to water vapor (process: evaporation and evapo-transpiration) 6.Water cycle: Water vapor to liquid water (process: condensation)