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2.5 Function Mrs. Page ESS 2014-2015.

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Presentation on theme: "2.5 Function Mrs. Page ESS 2014-2015."— Presentation transcript:

1 2.5 Function Mrs. Page ESS

2 Assessment Statements:
2.5.1 Explain the role of producers, consumers and decomposers in the ecosystem. 2.5.2 Describe photosynthesis and respiration in terms of inputs, outputs, and energy transformations 2.5.3 Describe and explain the transfer and transformation of energy as it flows through the ecosystem 2.5.4 Describe and explain the transfer and transformation of materials as the cycle within an ecosystem.

3 Transfers vs Transformations
Transfers – flows through a system, often involve changes in location Biomass moves from producers through food chain Water moves from a river to the ocean Energy moves from the sun to a plant leaf Transformations – interactions within a system and formation of new products or changes of state Light energy is converted to chemical energy Glucose is broken down into water and carbon dioxide

4 What is a system? System: a collection of matter, parts, or components which work together usually to perform a specific function. Systems often have inputs and outputs. For dynamic systems, by definition, one or more aspects of the system change with time. Example of a simple dynamic system: bathtub or your ‘bank’ account.

5 How is an ecosystem a system?
What are the primary parts that make up the storages in this system? What is the flows in this system? Why is it important to an ecosystem to have all of these parts? What would happen if these parts were missing or broken? What inputs & outputs do each of these components contribute to the system?

6 2.5.1 Explain the role of producers, consumers and decomposers in the ecosystem.
Energy flows through ecosystems as organisms capture and store energy, then transfer it to organisms that eat them. These organisms are grouped into trophic levels... Producers Consumers Decomposers Release nutrients back into the soil Convert light energy into chemical energy Provide food for the base of the food chain/web Release oxygen into the atmosphere Pass energy from one organism to another Release nutrients back into the soil

7 Tertiary consumers Microorganisms and other detritivores Secondary consumers Primary consumers Detritus Primary producers Heat Key Chemical cycling Sun Energy flow

8 Trophic Levels: Route of energy flow food web - pyramid of numbers
Tertiary consumers 10 J Secondary consumers 100 J food chain Primary consumers 1,000 J food web Primary producers 10,000 J 1,000,000 J of sunlight - pyramid of numbers

9 Where does the energy go?
Plant material eaten by caterpillar 200 J Figure An idealized pyramid of net production 67 J Cellular respiration 100 J Feces 33 J Growth (new biomass)

10 PRODUCERS What organisms are capable of trapping the energy of sunlight for conversion into the chemical energy or organic food? Plants Algae Some Bacteria These organisms are collectively referred to as producers. They provide food for themselves and for virtually all other organisms.

11 Chloroplasts (containing chlorophyll) – this is needed for photosynthesis
Cell wall – made of cellulose which strengthens the cell Cytoplasm – Chemical reactions happen here Cell membrane – controls what comes in and out Large vacuole – stores water, supports cell Nucleus – controls what the cell does and stores information

Four things are needed for photosynthesis: SUNLIGHT Specific wavelengths of light gives the plant energy CHLOROPHYLL The green stuff where the chemical reactions happen WATER Travels up from the roots CARBON DIOXIDE Enters the leaf through small holes on the underneath



15 CELLULAR RESPIRATION Transformation of chemical energy in food into chemical energy cells can use: ATP These reactions proceed the same way in plants and animals. Process is called cellular respiration Occurs in the mitochondria of plant or animal cells Overall Reaction: C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O



18 Biogeochemical Cycles
Nutrients exist in stores of chemical elements FOUR main reservoirs where these nutrients exist are: 1) Atmosphere – carbon (C) in carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen (N) in atmospheric nitrogen (N2) 2) Lithosphere - the rocks – phosphates (PO4), calcium in calcium carbonate, potassium in feldspar 3) Hydrosphere - the water (H2O) of oceans, lakes, streams and soil - nitrogen (N) in dissolved nitrate, (NO3) carbon (C) in carbonic acid (H2CO3)

19 Living Organisms and Nutrient Cycles
Living organisms are a reservoir (stores) in which carbon exists in carbohydrates (mainly cellulose) and fats, nitrogen in protein, and phosphorus in ATP

20 In studying cycling of water, carbon, nitrogen, and other chemicals, ecologists focus on four factors: Biological importance of each chemical Major reservoirs (stores) for each chemical Forms in which each chemical is available or used by organisms Key processes driving movement of each chemical through its cycle

21 The Water Cycle Water (H2O) is essential to all organisms
97% of the biosphere’s water is stored in the oceans, 2% is in glaciers and polar ice caps, and 1% is in lakes, rivers, and groundwater Water moves by the processes of evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, and movement through surface and groundwater (transfers)

22 The Carbon Cycle Carbon-based organic molecules are essential to all organisms Carbon stores include fossil fuels, soils and sediments, solutes in oceans, plant and animal biomass, and the atmosphere CO2 is taken up via photosynthesis and released via respiration Volcanoes and the burning of fossil fuels contribute CO2 to the atmosphere

23 Carbon Cycle 1. Stores – atmosphere (as CO2), fossil fuels (oil, coal), durable organic materials (for example: cellulose). 2. Inputs – plants use CO2 in photosynthesis; animals consume plants. 3. Outputs – plants and animals release CO2 through respiration and decomposition; CO2 is released as wood and fossil fuels are burned.


25 The Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen is a component of amino acids, proteins, and nucleic acids The main store of nitrogen is the atmosphere (N2) 78% N2 is converted to NH3 via nitrogen-fixing bacteria N2 is converted to NO3− via lightening Organic nitrogen is decomposed to (ammonium) NH4+ by ammonification, and NH4+ is decomposed to (nitrate) NO3– by nitrifying bacteria; NH4+ and NO3– assimilated by plants Denitrifying bacteria convert NO3– back to N2 NOTE: N2, NO, N20, and NO2 are not usable by plants (all but N2 contribute to smog.) NO3- (nitrate) and NH4+ (ammonium) forms of nitrogen are biologically usable

26 Nitrogen Cycle: Key Points
Nitrogen is in the atmosphere as N2 (78%) N2 is an inert gas and cannot be used by plants or animals N2 can be converted to a usable form via Lightening N-fixing plants and cyanobacteria Industrial process (energy intensive) Nitrogen limits plant growth Nitrogen is easily lost from biological systems

27 List Some Examples of Transformations
Carbon cycle: Organic compounds to CO2 (processes: respiration, decomposition, or fire) Carbon cycle: CO2 to organic compounds (process: photosynthesis) Nitrogen cycle: N2 to NO3 (atmospheric nitrogen to plant utilizable nitrate) (process: N-fixation) Nitrogen cycle: N2 to NH3 (plant utilizable ammonia) (process: Haber-Bosch Industrial N-fixation) Water cycle: Liquid water to water vapor (process: evaporation and evapo-transpiration) Water cycle: Water vapor to liquid water (process: condensation)

28 HOMEWORK Read pp 43-52 Exercises 1-5 page 52

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