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Welcome to Chem 108! Brian Majestic Environmental Chemistry and Technology and Department of Chemistry.

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Presentation on theme: "Welcome to Chem 108! Brian Majestic Environmental Chemistry and Technology and Department of Chemistry."— Presentation transcript:

1 Welcome to Chem 108! Brian Majestic Environmental Chemistry and Technology and Department of Chemistry

2 Syllabus Addition! Dr. Majestic’s office for office hours is in 2126 Chemistry (New wing) When I’m not at lecture or office hours, you can usually find me in the Water Science and Engineering Building (Park St at Lake Mendota)

3 Topics for Today Radon Elements, Compounds, and Molecules Protons and Atomic Number Noble Gases

4 Readings in Text 1.2 What’s in a Breath? The Composition of Air 1.14 The Inside Story of Air Quality (only the part about radon) 1.6 Classifying Matter Mixtures, Elements & Compounds 2.2 Atomic structure & periodicity

5 Topics for Wednesday What would you see if you were inside of the nucleus? Mass number vs atomic mass Isotopes Radon cont…

6 Readings in Text 1.7 Atoms & Molecules 2.2 Atomic Structure and Periodicity

7 Who are we in Chem 108 ?

8 Lab Director – José Laboy Please go to Lab this week!!

9 Teaching Assistants –Kevin Chau (1201 Chemistry, desk #37)

10 Teaching Assistants –Melisa Cherney (1201 Chemistry, desk #38) –Melissa Galloway (1201 Chemistry, desk #39)

11 Your Turn Send us an introducing yourself! Details on Chem 108 website (Assignment #1 due before class Jan 29).

12 Textbook – 5 th Edition

13 Chem 108 Website Lecture Notes Lecture Slides

14 Announcements If you need to change sections… you must go to the Gen Chem office (1328) and get on the waiting list! This is the ONLY way to change sections.

15 Topics for Today Radon Elements, Compounds, and Molecules Protons and Atomic Number Noble Gases

16 Helium

17 Helium H 2

18 Chemical Reaction 2 H 2 + O 2  2 H 2 O Where did the O 2 come from?

19 Helium H 2 H 2 + O 2

20

21 Air in this Room What else are we breathing in this room?

22 Air in this Room What else are we breathing in this room? –Nitrogen –Oxygen –Helium –Water Vapor –Methane –Radon –Other Trace Gases

23 Figure 1.4 (p. 13)

24 Air in this Room What else are we breathing in this room? –Nitrogen –Oxygen –Helium –Water Vapor –Methane –Radon –Other Trace Gases What do we know about radon?

25 Radon Radon is: an element a noble gas radioactive Rn 86

26 As seen on television … Rn

27 Radon Quiz 1. Radon enters your house from underground. TrueFalse

28 Radiation art True

29 Radon Quiz 2. Some people are immune to radon. TrueFalse

30 Radon Quiz 2. Some people are immune to radon. TrueFalse

31 Radon Quiz 3. New homes can be built to protect their owners against radon. TrueFalse

32 Radon Quiz 3. New homes can be built to protect their owners against radon. TrueFalse

33 Radon Quiz 4. Radon can cause cancer. TrueFalse

34 Radon Quiz 4. Radon can cause cancer. TrueFalse Rn is the 2 nd leading cause of lung cancer

35 Radon Radon is: an element a noble gas radioactive Rn 86

36 Radon Radon is: an element a noble gas radioactive Rn 86 What is an element?

37 Elements - Easy Definition Anything on the periodic table!

38 Air in this Room What else are we breathing in this room? –Nitrogen –Oxygen –Helium –Water Vapor –Methane –Radon –Other Trace Gases

39 Air in this Room What else are we breathing in this room? –Nitrogen –Oxygen –Helium –Water Vapor –Nitrous Oxide –Methane –Radon –Other Trace Gases How are these similar?

40 Elements in this Room?? What elements are in this room?

41 Elements in this Room?? What elements are in this room? –Carbon (diamond and graphite) –Iron –Gold, Silver –Aluminum –Tungsten –Silicon –Sulfur –……

42 Elements are usually NOT found as seen in the periodic table in nature…. Why not?

43 H 2 H 2 + O 2 They react!

44 Nitrogen N 2 Oxygen O 2 Hydrogen H 2 Elements often react with other elements, … Three elements

45 H 2 = hydrogen molecule made up of 2 hydrogen atoms

46 O 2 = oxygen molecule made up of 2 oxygen atoms

47 N 2 = nitrogen molecule made up of 2 nitrogen atoms

48 Atoms versus Molecules Atoms – As seen on the periodic table. N = nitrogen (NOT normally found in nature) Molecules – Made up of two or more atoms. N 2 = nitrogen gas.

49 An Element’s Personality Each element is defined by its protons. Protons (Z) = Atomic Number

50 Proton + in nucleus ~1 Neutron neutral in nucleus ~1 Electron – outside nucleus ~0 Charge Location Mass

51 Elements You often cannot tell an element just by looking at it (especially gases!). Oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide are all found in the atmosphere.

52 A colorless, odorless, tasteless gas Oxygen, O 2

53 A colorless, odorless, tasteless gas Nitrogen, N 2

54 A colorless, odorless, tasteless gas Carbon dioxide, CO 2

55 Radon What about radioactive gases like radon?

56 A colorless, odorless, tasteless gas Radon, Rn

57 Radon Radon is: an element a noble gas radioactive Rn 86 What is a noble gas?

58 Noble Gases Subdivision of the periodic table All noble gases are Chemically Stable (they do not react very easily) Helium The only radioactive noble gas

59 What do noble gases LOOK like?

60 Group 8A “noble gases” Helium

61 Neon Group 8A “noble gases”

62 Argon Group 8A “noble gases”

63 Xenon Group 8A “noble gases”

64 Noble Gases Helium The only noble gas with NO stable isotopes Rn 86 Are we breathing radon as we sit here?

65 Rn 1 % = 1 part per 100

66 How Much Radon? 1 part per 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 (On average) Radon

67 So, are we breathing radon as we sit here?

68 You bet!

69 Iowa Radon Lung Cancer Study June essed January 2006)

70 Why Iowa?

71 Iowa has the highest U.S. average radon concentrations.

72 Accessed January 20, 2006

73 Iowa Radon Study “... [total] radon exposure in the residential environment is significantly associated with lung cancer risk."... “a 15 year exposure at levels equivalent to EPA's action level of 4 pCi/L yielded excess an increase in lung cancer risk of 83% for total cases” * NOTE: pCi / L is read as “pico curie per liter”

74 How much radon is harmful…?

75 More than 4 picocuries per liter. How much radon is harmful…?

76 “radon, a radioactive gas found in the earth’s soil, is the second leading cause of lung cancer”radon Results in 21,000 excess deaths every year (US EPA).

77 What about where you live? Maximum levels of Rn exposure set by the EPA is 4 pCi / L air.

78 What about where you live? For typical radon levels, about 1 radioactive decay from radon every 7 seconds

79 How do we find out?

80 Finally… Remember to go to lab and discussion this week!


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