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Atmosphere as a part of the biosphere. Industrial pollution of ambient air as the actual problem of medical ecology Sergii Garkavyi Kyiv – 17.10.2012.

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Presentation on theme: "Atmosphere as a part of the biosphere. Industrial pollution of ambient air as the actual problem of medical ecology Sergii Garkavyi Kyiv – 17.10.2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 Atmosphere as a part of the biosphere. Industrial pollution of ambient air as the actual problem of medical ecology Sergii Garkavyi Kyiv –

2  The atmosphere as part of the biosphere  Ecological and hygienic importance of air  Ways and sources of air pollution in settlements, their ecological and hygienic characteristics  Effect of air pollution on public health  Measures of sanitary protection of atmospheric air in settlements Plan of the lecture

3  An atmosphere (New Latin atmosphaera, created in the 17th century from Greek ἀ τμός [atmos] and σφα ῖ ρα [sphaira] “sphere” is a layer of gases that may surround a material body of sufficient mass and that is held in place by the gravity of the body. ἀ τμός σφα ῖ ρα  The mass of Earth is 5,98  tons  The mass of Atmosphere is 5,157  tons The atmosphere as part of the biosphere

4  The atmosphere of Earth is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth that is retained by Earth's gravity.gases surrounding the planet Earth that is retained by Earth's gravity.  The atmosphere protects life on Earth by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect), and reducing temperature extremes between day and night (the diurnal temperature variation) The atmosphere protects life on Earth by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect), and reducing temperature extremes between day and night (the diurnal temperature variation)  Atmospheric stratification describes the structure of the atmosphere, dividing it into distinct layers, each with specific characteristics such as temperature or composition. Atmospheric stratification describes the structure of the atmosphere, dividing it into distinct layers, each with specific characteristics such as temperature or composition. The atmosphere as part of the biosphere

5  Exosphere ( km)  Thermosphere ( km)  Mesosphere (50-85 km)  Stratosphere (20-50 km)  Troposphere (0 – 20 km) The structure of the atmosphere

6  The outermost layer of Earth's atmosphere extends from the exobase upward. IIt is mainly composed of hydrogen and helium.  In the exosphere the density is so low that particles collide only rarely. That makes it possible for energetic particles to escape Earth`s gravity altogether. Here, the Earth`s atmosphere gradually thins out and merges with interplanetary space  The lower boundary of the exosphere is known as exobase; it is also called the thermopause as in Earth`s atmosphere the atmospheric temperature becomes nearly a constant above this altitude. Exosphere (> 600 km)

7  The thermosphere is the layer of the Earth's atmosphere directly above the mesosphere and directly below the exosphere. Within this layer, ultraviolet radiation (UV) causes ionization. Called from the Greek θερμός (thermos) meaning heat, the thermosphere begins about 80 kilometres (50 mi) above the Earth.  Thermospheric temperatures increase with altitude due to absorption of highly energetic solar radiation by the small amount of residual oxygen still present.  Temperatures are highly dependent on solar activity, and can rise to 1,500 °C.  Auroras also occur in the thermosphere Thermosphere ( km)

8  The mesosphere (m ɛ so ʊ sf ɪ ə r; from Greek mesos = middle and sphaira = ball) is the layer of the Earth's atmosphere that is directly above the stratosphere and directly below the thermosphere.  The upper boundary of the mesosphere is the mesopause, which can be the coldest naturally occurring place on Earth with temperatures below -143,15 o C.  Millions of meteors enter the atmosphere, an average of 40 tons per year. Within the mesosphere most melt or vaporize as a result of collisions with the gas particles contained there. This results in a higher concentration of iron and other refractory materials reaching the surface. Mesosphere (50-85 km)

9  The stratosphere (/ ˈ stræt ə sf ɪ ə r/) is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere./ ˈ stræt ə sf ɪ ə r  The stratosphere is layered in temperature because ozone (O 3 ) here absorbs high energy UVB and UVC energy waves from the Sun and is broken down into atomic oxygen (O) and diatomic oxygen (O 2 ).  This vertical stratification, with warmer layers above and cooler layers below, makes the stratosphere dynamically stable: there is no regular convection and associated turbulence in this part of the atmosphere.  Commercial airliners typically cruise at altitudes of 9–12 km in temperate latitudes (in the lower reaches of the stratosphere). This optimizes fuel burn, mostly thanks to the low temperatures encountered near the tropopause and low air density, reducing parasitic drag on the airframe. It also allows them to stay above hard weather (extreme turbulence). Stratosphere (20-50 km)

10  The ozone layer is a layer in Earth's atmosphere containing relatively high concentrations of ozone (O 3 ).  The ozone layer was discovered in 1913 by the French physicists Charles Fabry and Henri Buisson.  The ozone layer absorbs 97–99% of the Sun's medium- frequency ultraviolet light (from about 200 nm to 315 nm wavelength), which potentially damages exposed life forms on Earth The ozone layer

11 Origin of ozone

12  The ozone layer can be depleted by free radical catalysts, including nitric oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N 2 O), hydroxyl (OH), atomic chlorine (Cl), and atomic bromine (Br).  The concentrations of chlorine and bromine have increased markedly in recent years due to the release of large quantities of man-made organohalogen compounds, especially chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and bromofluorocarbons.  Consequently, unabsorbed and dangerous ultraviolet-B radiation is able to reach the Earth’s surface. Ozone levels over the northern hemisphere have been dropping by 4% per decade. Over approximately 5% of the Earth's surface, around the north and south poles, much larger seasonal declines have been seen, and are described as ozone holes. Ozone depletion

13  The troposphere is the lowest portion of Earth's atmosphere. It contains approximately 80% of the atmosphere's mass and 99% of its water vapor and aerosols.  The average depth of the troposphere is approximately 17 km in the middle latitudes. It is deeper in the tropics, up to 20 km, and shallower near the polar regions, at 7 km in summer, and indistinct in winter.  Most of the phenomena we associate with day-to-day weather occur in the troposphere.  The chemical composition of the troposphere is essentially uniform, with the notable exception of water vapor. Troposphere (0 – 20 km)

14  Air is the name given to atmosphere used in breathing and photosynthesis.  Dry air contains roughly (by volume) 78.09% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.039% carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.  Air also contains a variable amount of water vapor, on average around 1%.  Air content and atmospheric pressure vary at different layers, air suitable for the survival of terrestrial plants and terrestrial animals is currently only known to be found in Earth's troposphere and artificial atmospheres. Atmospheric air

15  The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth. Along with the nitrogen cycle and the water cycle, the carbon cycle comprises a sequence of events that are key to making the Earth capable of sustaining life;  Describes the movement of carbon as it is recycled and reused throughout the biosphere. The carbon cycle

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17  Carbon-based molecules are crucial for life on earth, as it is the main component of biological compounds.  Carbon is a major component of many minerals.  Carbon exists in various forms in the atmosphere.  Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is partly responsible for the greenhouse effect and is the most important human-contributed greenhouse gas Relevance of carbon for the global climate

18  The nitrogen cycle is the process by which nitrogen is converted between its various chemical forms. This transformation can be carried out through both biological and physical processes.  Important processes in the nitrogen cycle include fixation, mineralization, nitrification, and denitrification. The nitrogen cycle

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20  Nitrogen is essential for many processes; it is crucial for any life on Earth.  It is a component in all amino acids, as incorporated into proteins, and is present in the bases that make up nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA.  In plants, much of the nitrogen is used in chlorophyll molecules, which are essential for photosynthesis and further growth.  Although Earth’s atmosphere is an abundant source of nitrogen, most is relatively unusable by plants.  Nitrogen is a crucial component of food production.  Reactive nitrogen dictates how much food can be grown on a piece of land. Ecological function of nitrogen

21  The Oxygen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle that describes the movement of oxygen within its three main reservoirs: the atmosphere (air), the total content of biological matter within the biosphere (the global sum of all ecosystems), and the lithosphere (Earth's crust).  The main driving factor of the oxygen cycle is photosynthesis, which is responsible for the modern Earth's atmosphere and life as we know it. The Oxygen cycle

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23  By far the largest reservoir of Earth's oxygen is within the silicate and oxide minerals of the crust and mantle (99.5%). Only a small portion has been released as free oxygen to the biosphere (0.01%) and atmosphere (0.36%). The main source of atmospheric free oxygen is photosynthesis, which produces sugars and free oxygen from carbon dioxide and water. Reservoirs of oxygen

24  Meteorsessistance  Thermotechnical  Heat shielding  Toxicological  Bioprotective  Biogenic  Climate and Weather forming  Physiological  Heat exchange  Industrial  Ventilation  Epidemiology  Processes purification Ecological and hygienic importance of air

25  Air pollution is the introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause discomfort, disease, or death to humans, damage other living organisms such as food crops, or damage the natural environment or built environment. Air pollution

26  Sulphur oxides (SO x )  Nitrogen oxides (NO x )  Carbon monoxide (CO)  Carbon dioxide (CO 2 )  Volatile organic compounds  Atmospheric particulate matter  Persistent free radicals  Toxic metals, such as lead, cadmium and copper  Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)  Ammonia (NH 3 )  Odors  Radioactive pollutants Major primary pollutants produced by human activity

27  (1) greenhouse effect, (2) particulate contamination, (3) increased UV radiation, (4) acid rain, (5) increased ground level ozone concentration, (6) increased levels of nitrogen oxides. Causes and effects of air pollution

28  Sources of air pollution refer to the various locations, activities or factors which are responsible for the releasing of pollutants into the atmosphere. These sources can be classified into two major categories which are:  Anthropogenic sources (human activity)  Natural sources Sources of air pollution

29  "Stationary Sources" include smoke stacks of power plants, manufacturing facilities (factories) and waste incinerators, as well as furnaces and other types of fuel-burning heating devices. In developing and poor countries, traditional biomass burning is the major source of air pollutants; traditional biomass includes wood, crop waste and dung.power plants, manufacturing facilities (factories) and waste incinerators, as well as furnaces and other types of fuel-burning heating devices. In developing and poor countries, traditional biomass burning is the major source of air pollutants; traditional biomass includes wood, crop waste and dung.  "Mobile Sources" include motor vehicles, marine vessels, aircraft and the effect of soundmotor vehicles, marine vessels, aircraft and the effect of sound  Chemicals, dust and controlled burn practices in agriculture and forestry management.  Fumes from paint, hair spray, varnish, aerosol sprays and otheraint, hair spray, varnish, aerosol sprays and other  Waste deposition in landfields which generates methane.  Military, such as nuclear weapons, toxic gases, germ warfare and rocketry Anthropogenic sources of air pollution

30  Dust from natural sources, usually large areas of land with little or no vegetation Dust from natural sources, usually large areas of land with little or no vegetation  Methane, emitted by the digestion of food by animals, for example cattle Methane, emitted by the digestion of food by animals, for example cattle  Radon gas from radioactive decay within the Earth's crust. Radon is a colorless, odorless, naturally occurring, radioactive noble gas that is formed from the decay of radium. It is considered to be a health hazard. Radon gas from natural sources can accumulate in buildings, especially in confined areas such as the basement and it is the second most frequent cause of lung cancer, after cigarette smoking Radon gas from radioactive decay within the Earth's crust. Radon is a colorless, odorless, naturally occurring, radioactive noble gas that is formed from the decay of radium. It is considered to be a health hazard. Radon gas from natural sources can accumulate in buildings, especially in confined areas such as the basement and it is the second most frequent cause of lung cancer, after cigarette smoking  Smoke and carbon monoxide from wildfire Smoke and carbon monoxide from wildfire  Vegetation, in some regions, emits environmentally significant amounts of VOCs on warmer days. These VOCs react with primary anthropogenic pollutants—specifically, NO x, SO 2, and anthropogenic organic carbon compounds—to produce a seasonal haze of secondary pollutants  Volcanic activity, which produce sulfur, chlorine, and ash particulates Natural sources of air pollution

31  Air pollution is a significant risk factor for multiple health conditions including respiratory infections, heart disease, and lung cancer, according to the WHO.  he health effects caused by air pollution may include difficulty in breathing, wheezing, coughing and aggravation of existing respiratory and cardiac conditions.  The WHO states that 2.4 million people die each year from causes directly attributable to air pollution, with 1.5 million of these deaths attributable to indoor air pollution  Worldwide more deaths per year are linked to air pollution than to automobile accidents Health effects

32  There are various air pollution control technologies and land use planning strategies available to reduce air pollution.  At its most basic level land use planning is likely to involve zoning and transport infrastructure planning.  In most developed countries, land use planning is an important part of social policy, ensuring that land is used efficiently for the benefit of the wider economy and population as well as to protect the environment. Reduction efforts

33  Efforts to reduce pollution from mobile sources includes primary regulation (many developing countries have permissive regulations), expanding regulation to new sources (such as cruise and transport ships, farm equipment, and small gas-powered equipment such as lawn trimmers, chainsaws, and snowmobiles), increased fuel efficiency (such as through the use of hybrid vehicles), conversion to cleaner fuels (such as bioethanol, biodiesel, or conversion to electric vehicles). Reduction efforts

34  Particulate control Particulate control  Scrubbers Scrubbers  NOx control NOx control  VOC abatement VOC abatement  Acid Gas/SO 2 Acid Gas/SO 2  Dioxin and furan control Dioxin and furan control  Miscellaneous associated equipment Control devices

35 Thank You for Your attention


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