acid deposition : wet (rain, snow, sleet, fog and cloudwater, dew) and dry deposition (acidifying particles and gases) all rain acid – pH 5.6 (dissolved carbon dioxide) sulphur dioxide, nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide record for acidity: December 1982 in Los Angeles fog of pH of 1.5
Sulphur Dioxide pollutant gas produced by burning coal and hydrocarbon fuels like oil major sources: power stations, domestic heating systems and some industrial processes such as smelting, marine algae and rotting vegetation
Nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen monoxide pollutant gases from combustion mainly internal combustion engines incars and lorries
Acid Rain in Norway 90 percent of acid rain in Norway comes from European countries. Some of the largest amounts of acid pollution have come from the UK, Germany and Poland. In Norway, sources of Sulphur emissions are metal production, stationary combustion and other industrial processes. Nitrogen emissions mainly originate from diffuse sources, i.e. from road traffic, shipping and aircraft. In Norway coastal traffic, fishing vessels, road traffic and oil and gas extraction are the most important sources of Nitrogen emissions.
Acid rain kills fish Most serious damage in the southern half of the country Fish mortality became more widespread between 1950 and 1990. Eighteen salmon stocks have been lost and 12 are endangered In most parts of the country, nitrogen accounts for about 10 per cent of acid deposition, but in southwestern Norway this rises to 30-40 per cent. It is estimated that due to acid rain, trout populations have been depleted in about 5,100 lakes and damaged in another 5,800 lakes.
Damage to Norwegian forests Damage to vegetation and the die out of forests The situation in Norway is better than in Central Europe. Former East Germany, Czechoslovakia and Poland in 1980. Poorer quality of plant ‘s protein Plant’s ability to absorb the nutrients depends on acidity in the soils, so less nutrients is available Washing out the nutrients E.g. Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Magnesium
Total deposits of Sulphur in Norway were reduced from 191 000 tonnes in 1980 to 79 000 tonnes in 2000.
Trends determined by energy use Economic growth has resulted in rising demand for energy Industrial development determines sulphur emissions Transport determines nitrogen emissions
Norwegian’s policies for Acid Rain The Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution was signed in 1979 Gothenburg Protocol in 2005 to sets limits for emissions of several substances including sulphur and nitrogen, and will be used to control emissions of sulphur and nitrogen in Europe up to 2010.
Norway to reduce Sulphur and nitrogen emissions Total deposits of sulphur in Norway was reduced from 191 000 tonnes in 1980 to 62 000 tonnes in 2003 Norway has undertaken to reduce its emissions of sulphur dioxide to a maximum of 22 000 tonnes in 2010, in which corresponds to a reduction of 58 per cent compared with the 1990 level. Total deposits of nitrogen were reduced from 173 400 tonnes in 1980 to 104 000 tonnes in 2003 The targets for nitrogen are maximum emissions of 156 000 tonnes nitrogen oxides (NOx) and 23 000 tonnes of ammonia (NH3), in which corresponds to a reduction of 28 per cent for NOx.