21-Introduction Food analysis is the discipline dealing with the development, application and study of analyticalprocedures for characterizing the properties of foods and their constituentsCharacteristics of food, include their compositionstructure and physicochemical propertiesFood components e.g. lipids, proteins, water,carbohydrates and minerals
32- Food Safety-one of the most important reasons for analyzing food to ensure that they are safe-Food considered to be unsafe because it may contains:1- harmful micro organisms (Salmonella) .2- toxic chemicals (pesticides).3- extraneous matter(glass, wood, metal, insects and matter)So analytical techniques must be of high sensitivity to detect low levels of harmful material
4Properties Analyzed 1- Composition: a- most foods are compositionally complex material Made up of a variety of different chemical constituents b- Composition depends upon the property that is of interest to the analyst e.g.: specific atoms :C,H,N,O,S,Na,…etc specific molecules : water, sugar,…. Specific substances : milk, flour, butter,…. Types of molecules : fats, proteins, carbohydrates, minerals
52-Structure a- Molecular structure(~1-100nm) type of molecules present b- Microscopic structure (~10nm-100 μ m)food can be observed by microscopy (not by unaided eye)eg emulsion droplets, fat crystals, protein aggregates,...c- Microscopic structure (~> 100 μm) food can be observed by the unaided eye) eg sugar granules , raisons, chocolate chips food….
6Physicochemical Properties of food Optical(interaction with electromagnetic radiation ) Absor ,scatt,transmit , reflec of visible lightfull fat milk, skim milkRheological(the way of the shape changes)Margarine is spreadable out of refrig, must not be very softFlavorThe way that certain molecule interact with the receptors mouth(taste, nose, smell)Stability(it is the measure of its ability to resist changes in its chemical. Physical or biological properties over time
7Thus food must be carefully designed so that they have the required physicochemical properties over range of environmental conditions and Analytical techniques are needed to test physicochemical properties
8Food components: can be distinguished from each other by Molecular Characteristics: size ,shape, polarity, interaction with radiation,….physical properties: melting points, boiling points, density,….Chemical reaction: Specific chemical reaction between certain component and an added reagent
93- Selecting an Appropriate Technique Some of the criteria that are important in selecting a technique are:precisionAccuracyCostSimplicity of operationReproducibilitySensitivitySpeeddestructive /Nondestructivesafety
10Specify : a measure of ability to detect and quantify a specific components within a food material even in the presence of other similar components eg fructose in presence of sucrose or glucose
114- Sample Selection and Sampling A food analyst has to select an appropriate fraction of the whole material which is one of the most important stages of food analysis , and can lead to large errors when not carried out correctly
125-Prepartion of Laboratory Samples 5 5-Prepartion of Laboratory Samples Making Samples Homogeneous 1- Mechanical devices e.g., grinder, mixers ,slicers , blenders 2-Enzymatic method e.g., professes, calluses, lipases 3- chemical methods e.g., strong acid , strong bases.
135.2-Reducing Sample Size and Preventing Changes in sample Enzymatic Inactivation Lipid Protection Microbial Growth and Contamination Physical changes
14Analysis of Proteins Proteins are polymers of amino acid Twenty different type f amino acid occur naturally in proteins.Proteins differ from each other according to number and sequence of amino acid that makes up polypeptide backboneThus proteins have different molecular structure
15Proteins are important constituents of food, they are major source of energy. Proteins are major structural component of many natural food e.g. meat or fish productProtein are used as galling agent, emulsifiers, foaming agent .Many food proteins are enzymes which are capable of enhancing the rate off certain biochemical reactionFood analysis are interested in knowing the total concentration ,type, molecular structure, and functional properties of proteins in food
16Proteins Amino acids are the basic structural units of proteins Proteins Amino acids are the basic structural units of proteins. An amino acid is a compound that contains at least one amino group(-NH2) and at least one carboxyl group (-COOH)
227-Determination Of Overall Proteins Concentration 7 7-Determination Of Overall Proteins Concentration 7.1-Kjeldahl Method 1- Food is digested with strong acid (H2SO4) to oxidize any nitrogen in the oxidation state -3 to NH4SO4 N(food) (NH4) 2SO4 2- HgO is added as a catalyst to ensure complete oxidation.
233- Nitrogen in oxidation states other than -3 (nitro, azo- are oxidation to N2 resulting an error , salicylic acid is added as a reducing nitrogen to -3 state. 4- The ammonium sulphate is then converted into ammonia gas by heating with sodium hydroxide (NH4)2SO4+2NaOH Na2SO4+2H2O+2NH3
245-NH3 is collected in a flask containing a known amount of standard HCL. 2NH3+2HCL 2(NH4)CL 6-The excess HCL is then titrated with standard NaOH 1 Mole HCL=1Mle N=14 gN 7-A blank sample is usually run at the same time as the material being analyzed to into account ay residual nitrogen take may be present into the reagent used to carry out the analysis. 8- the continent of protein is equivalent to the amount of nitrogen found
25NХF % protein =%F= conversion factor =100( % Nin food protein) A conversion factor of 6.25(equivalent to 0.16g nitrogen per gram of protein) is used for many application this is an average value, each protein has a different conversion factor depending on its amino-acid composition
26Table (1):Specific Jones factor for the conversion of nitrogen content (selected food) Animal origin.68Eggs6.25Meat6.38milkVegetable organCorn (maize)5.95rice5.71soybean6.25Velvet beans5.46peanuts
277.2- spectroscopic methods of proteins analysis 1- Methods using UV-visible spectroscopy 2- Infrared spectroscopy : near infrared (NIR)λ region is nm, it penetrates deeper into the food sample giving a more reprehensive analysis. 3- NMR Spectroscopy : protein content by measuring area under a peak in a NMR chemical shift spectra that correspond to the protein fraction.
28Method using UV - vis spectroscopy 1-these methods use either the natural ability of proteins to absorb (or scatter) light in the UV-Vis reason of the electromagnetic spectrum or They chemically or physically modify proteins to make them absorb or scatter light in this reason 2- Calibration curve of absorbance or turbidity verses protein consecration
29The most common UV-vis methods for protein content of food are Biuret methodscu +2 interact with-peptide bond in alkaline med forming violet – purplish color. It is mixed with port stand15-30 min to give abso 540nm advantages no interfere at low conc.Disadvantages less sensitivity, common to all peptide bond.Dye binding methodThe amount of proteins present in the original solution is proportional to the amount of dye thatBond to itDye bond =dye initial –dye freeTrimetric methodSoluble proteins can precipitate by the add of cectain chemical eg trichloro acetic acid causing the solute be turbid cone of protein can be determine By measure the degree of turbidity
307.3-Measurement of Physical Properties DensityThe density of a protein is greater than that of the most other food components, and so there is an increase in density of a food as its protein content increase.Refractive IndexThe refractive index of an aqueous solution increases as the protein concentration increases
318- protein separation and characterization 1-Separation due to Different Adsorption characterization Ion exchange chromatography .2-Separation due to size difference . Size exclusion chromatography3- Separation by electrophoresis
329- Metal in food TinZincArsenicCopperThese metals can be determine gravimetrically or by atomic absorption methods.
339-1 MERCURY IN FOOD PRODUCT Mercury in mushroomMercury in fishes
341- fish is an important part of a healthy diet 2- benefits of fish: high in protein, law in saturated fat and high in unsaturated fat3- most people are exposed to mercury via food4- fish takes up mercury from steams and oceans as they feed, this mercury is the most toxic form ,methyl mercury. It binds to there tissue protein (muscles)
355- there are three forms of mercury : organic ,inorganic and metallic. 6-organic form I dangerous (methyl mercury) .7- inorganic mercury is converted to organic mercury by anaerobic bacteria at the bottom of lakes streams8- small aquatic animals consumes the organic mercury, and in turn eaten by larger life form.9-as the elements move up to the food chain , forms microbes to the fish then to large animal as swordfish, mercury becomes more concentrated.
3610- oysters may concentrate mercury by a factor of 100,000. 11-mercury levels differs from one species of fish to the next , according to fish, size, location, habitat and age.12- fish contains higher levels of mercury includes , shark , swordfish , barramundi,…13- fish contains lower levels ofMercury includes, lobster, salmon and canned tuna.
389.1.1 Analysis of mercury in fish 1. Atomic Absorption Methods2. Dithizone Colorimetric Procedure3. Neutron Activation Analysis
39Dithizone Colorimetric Procedure 1- It is the most commonly used method.2- wet oxidation process.3- Hydroxylamine hydrochloride is added to reduce the remaining oxidizing material from wet oxidization Mercury is extracted from solution using Dithizone in chloroform.5- Copper can interact with thiazone causing interference
406- Sodium thiosulfate is added to the CHC13 layer, a water soluble mercury thiosulfate is formed while copper Dithizone remains in CHC137- The aquophase containing mercury- thiosulfate is again oxidizes by H2SO4 or HNO3 and mercury is extracted with in CHC148- Mercury – dithionate is determined spectrophotometrically at 490nm
41“Advantages”:Low cost, simplicity, senility.=“Disadvantages”:Interference of copper.
42Ffffffffffffffffff 10-carbohydrates in food Total carbohydrate content of food is calculated by difference ,rather than analyzed directly .Thus the constituents in food (proteins, fats water, ash, alcohol) are determined individually , summed and subtracted from total weight of the food.Total cryohydrate =100(weight in grams(protein, fat, water, ash, alcohol) in 100 grams of food
4311-Separation and identification of sugars A- Paper chromatographyb- high performance liquid chromatographyExample separation of fructose , orbital ,scarce and lactose1- fructose2- orbital3- scarce4- lactose
4412- fats in foodFats are hydrolyzed using an alkali such as(NaOH), the alcohol is liberated and also salts of fatty acids (soaps)
451- Fats become rancid as a result of peroxide formation at the double bonds by atmospheric oxygen and hydrolysis by micro organisms with the liberation of free acids.2- The amount of free acids presents gives an indication of the age and quality of fats3- Acids value :is the number of milligrams of KOH requires to neutralize the free acid present in 1gm fat.
4612.1 Separation and Charactration of Free Fatty Acids From Milk 1-The milk sample is prepared by mixing 10ml of milk 10ml, of 28%ammonium hydroxide, 25 ml petroleum ether and 25ml diethyl ether.
472-when the mixture is well shaken it allows to stands 20 min, the residue is treated with 3ml 0.5N NaOH in methanol, heated on a stream bath 15 min.3- 5ml water is added then 2N HCL till pH is about 2 is reached.4- Separation was carried out using Gas Chromatographic (G . C) method.
485- Glass column , 3m long , 2mm diameter, packed with silicon polymer. 6- The column is then programmed from ˚C Nitrogen is used as carrier gas.7- This method is effective, rapid, accurate quantitative results were easily obtained
49The separation of the fatty acid is milk 3/n-Caprylic acid2/n Caproic acid1/n-Valeric acid6/n-Myristic acid5/n-Lauric acid4/n- Capric acid9/n-c16-1 ene8/n-Stearic acid7/n-Palmitic acid12/n- linolenicacid11/n-Linoleic acid10/n- Oleic acid
51Flavor is defined as a substance that gives another substance flavor, altering the characteristics of the solute, casing it to become sweet, sour, etcThe flavor of the food, can be natural or artificial flavoringDue to the high or unavailability of natural flavor extracts most commercial flavoring are nature-identical which means that they are the chemical equivalent of natural of natural flavors but chemically synthesized rather than being extracted from the source material
52Certain organic acids can be used to enhance sour tastes, Each acids impart a slightly different sour taste that alters the flavor of a foodAcetic acids: gives vinegar its sour taste and distinctive smellCitric acids: found in citrus fruits and gives then them their sour taste.Lactic acids: found in various milk product and give them rich tartnessMalic acids: found in apples that gives them their sour/taste.Tartaric acids: found in grapes and wines and gives them a tart taste
53A- The accurate and rapid identification and quantitation of flavor and fragrance compounds are often limited by the methods use for extracting, collecting, and concentrating analyte species prior to/gas chromatographic analysis flavors.
54Liquid solvent extraction, steam distillation, methods –B are frequely used for the extration and collection of freagrance and flavor compounds but can require several hours to perform, may yield low extraction efficiencies and may result in loss or degradation of analyte species.