Solid Nonmetal Solid Metal Gas Nonmetal Solid Metalloid Solid Metal Solid Metal
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=im w8Y4x4ooo Nitrogen gas when inside a gas discharge tube; glows blue-violet Electron Configuration: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 3 Physical Properties: Nitrogen can be either a gas, liquid, or a solid. Nitrogen gas is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. Liquid nitrogen is also colorless and odorless, and is similar in appearance to water. There are two allotropic forms of solid nitrogen, a and b. Density : 1.25*10-3 g.cm-3 at 20°C Melting point : -210 °C Boiling point : -195.8 °C Chemical Properties: It forms nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide with oxygen, ammonia with hydrogen, and nitrogen sulfide with sulfur. At high temperatures it will combine with certain active metals, such as lithium, magnesium and titanium to form nitrides. Nitrogen form compounds through biological activity, at high temperature, or at moderate temperature with the aid of catalysts Nitrogen makes up 78.09% of the air we breathe
Used in ammonia, NH 3, production The electronics industry uses nitrogen gas as a blanketing medium during production of components like transistors or diodes. Used in strengthening stainless steel and other steel mill products Used as a refrigerant for the immersion freezing of food products and for transportation of foods so they don’t go bad. The oil industry uses liquid nitrogen to create more pressure in wells to force oil out of the ground. Liquid nitrogen is used as a controlled atmosphere for explosive liquid storage tanks
Electron Configuration: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 3 Physical Properties: Phosphorus can be a white, waxy solid, a brownish- red powder, or a black solid. The boiling point of phosphorus is 280°C (536°F) The melting point of phosphorus is 44.3°C (111.7°F) The density of phosphorus is 1.82g/cc at 300K Chemical Properties: It is highly poisonous, with a lethal dose of ~50 mg. White phosphorus causes severe burns when it comes in contact with skin. Phosphorus is insoluble in water, but soluble in carbon disulfide. White phosphorus is converted to red phosphorus when exposed to sunlight or heated in its own vapor to 250°C. Black phosphorus is the most poisonous. In the natural world phosphorous is never encountered in its pure form, but only as phosphates, which consists of a phosphorous atom bonded to four oxygen atoms. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JF xljIb3JY0
Used in safety matches, smoke bombs, tracer bullets, etc. Fertilizers Used in the manufacturing of special glasses like the ones used in sodium lamps. Calcium phosphate, otherwise know as bone- ash, is used to produce fine chinaware and to produce monocalcium phosphate used in baking powder. Used in cleaning agents, water softeners, and corrosion of pipes and boiler tubes Pesticides Explosives Road flares
Chemical Properties: In heated air, it oxidizes and becomes arsenic trioxide and this gives off a distinct smell of garlic Arsenic tarnishes rapidly in air Arsenic combines readily with many elements. The non metallic form of Arsenic is less reactive but will dissolve when heated with strong oxidizing acids and alkalis. Arsenic is VERY poisonous. It is one of chemicals that has been classified by USEPA as a known human carcinogen Physical Properties: Arsenic appears in three allotropic forms: yellow, black and grey. The stable form of Arsenic is a silver-gray, brittle crystalline solid. It is also very brittle. The melting point of Arsenic is 814 °C The boiling point of Arsenic is 615 °C The density of Arsenic is 5.7 g.cm -3 at 14°C Arsenic can be found naturally on Earth in small concentrations, whether that would be in the soil and minerals or in water and the land due to wind-blown dust and water run-off. Arsenic found in the atmosphere can come from recently erupted volcanoes, but most of the arsenic found in our atmosphere is due to the burning of fossil fuels. Electron Configuration: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 3 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W 3Hvexu5SqM
Metal bronzing Pyrotechnics (i.e. FIREWORKS!) The arsenide is used as a laser material to convert electricity directly into light
Physical Properties: Antimony is a silvery-white, shiny element that looks like a metal. It has a scaly surface and is hard and brittle like a non-metal. It can also be prepared as a black powder with a shiny brilliance to it. The melting point of antimony is 630°C (1,170°F). The boiling point of antimony is 1,635°C (2,980°F). Antimony is a relatively soft material that can be scratched by glass Antimony has a density of 6.68 grams per cubic centimeter. Chemical Properties: Antimony does not combine with oxygen in the air at room temperature. Antimony does not react with cold water or with most cold acids. Antimony does dissolve in some hot acids, however, and in aqua regia(a mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acids). Antimony is rarely found in its native (as an element) state, although it is found in the Earth’s crust. Instead, it usually occurs as a compound. The most common minerals of antimony are stibnite, tetrahedrite, bournonite, boulangerite, and jamesonite. In most of these minerals, antimony is combined with sulfur to produce some form of antimony sulfide (Sb 2 S 3 ). Electron Configuration: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 10 5p 3.
Used to increase the hardness and strength of lead Batteries Small arms and tracer bullets Cable sheathing Glass Pottery Paint A form of Antimony called hydrated potassium antimonyltartate, is used in medicine
Physical Properties: Bismuth is a white, crystalline, brittle metal with a pinkish tint. Bismuth crystals are multi-colored and brittle. Bismuth’s thermal conductivity is lower than any metal except mercury. Bismuth has the highest Hall effect(the greatest increase in electrical resistance when placed in a magnetic field) of any metal. Bismuth has a melting point of 271 °C Bismuth has a boiling point of 1420 °C Bismuth has a density of 9.80 g.cm -3 at 20°C Chemical Properties: Bismuth is stable when it comes into contact with oxygen and water but dissolves in concentrated nitric air. All bismuth salts form insoluble compounds when put into water. Bismuth occurs naturally as the metal itself and is found as crystals in the sulphides ores of nickel, cobalt, silver and tin. The chief areas where it is mined are Bolivia, Peru', Japan, Mexico and Canada, but only to the extent of 3.000 tones per year. There is no reliable estimate of how much bismuth is available to be mined, but it seems unlikely than there will ever be a shortage of this metal. Electron Configuration: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 10 5p 6 6s 2 4f 14 5d 10 6p 3
Used in producing malleable irons Cosmetics Fire detection devices Extinguishing systems Medicine
UUP has no uses as only a very few atoms of this element have been identified. Ununpentium is the temporary name of a artificially produced radioactive chemical element that has the temporary symbol Uup and has the atomic number 115. It was discovered from the bombardment of atoms of Americium- 243 with ions of calcium-48. Electron Configuration: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 10 4s 2 4p 6 4d 10 5s 2 5p 6 4f 14 5d 10 6s 2 6p 6 5f 14 6d 10 7s 2 7p 3 Uup is a radioactive man- made element. Therefore, it is not found in nature
Due to its high level of toxicity, arsenic has been named as the ‘Kings of Poison’. The sound you hear when you crack your knuckles is actually nitrogen gas bubbles popping. Phosphorus compounds are vital for life. Phosphorus is the sixth most abundant element in living organisms. Bismuth has a half-life of over a billion times as long as the ESTIMATED AGE OF THE UNIVERSE. In some countries, antimony was used as eye makeup for centuries.