Colour Anthocyanins: Found in many plant families – except those in Caryophyllales Found in all plant tissues 10 9 tonnes produced per year in nature 2% of all carbon fixed via photosynthesis is converted to anthocyanins
Ferns (and Fern allies) Gymnosperms Angiosperms
Colour Functions of anthocyanins: Pollinator attractant Sunscreen – succulents and autumn leaf colouration Anti-feedants – bitter tasting
Colour Anthocyanins as pollinator attractant? Bromeliaceae
Colour Anthocyanins as sunscreen or antifeedant or both?
Colour Anthocyanins as antifeedant ?
Colour Metasequoia glyptostroboides dawn redwood Rhodoxanthin:
Colour Daucus carrota carrot beta-carotene
Colour Solanum lycopersicon tomato lycopene:
Colour Betalains: Amino-acid derived Nitrogen containing – metabolically more expensive Yellow to red pigments (betaxanthins and betacyanins) Only present in plants in order Caryophyllales
Smell Nicotiana attenuata from the SW United States –Releases benzyl acetone when flower opens at night –Attracts hawkmoth pollinators Pollinators are also herbivores (larval stage) Upon herbivore attack, flowers no longer produce benzyl acetone nor open at night Day opening flowers are then hummingbird pollinated