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Chemistry at Karlsruhe 1860: Using Reacting to the Past in General Chemistry David E. Henderson Trinity College Susan K Henderson Quinnipiac University.

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Presentation on theme: "Chemistry at Karlsruhe 1860: Using Reacting to the Past in General Chemistry David E. Henderson Trinity College Susan K Henderson Quinnipiac University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chemistry at Karlsruhe 1860: Using Reacting to the Past in General Chemistry David E. Henderson Trinity College Susan K Henderson Quinnipiac University

2 Philosophies of Science Plato –describe nature by thinking about the ideal state rather then the real state (logic) Aristotle –observe nature and then try to describe its properties and behavior Empiricists –develop laws and relationships to describe nature only by direct observations/measurements. – Not concerned with underlying causes. Realists – Understanding underlying causes is necessary to fully explain observations – atoms must be considered to be real to fully describe how different arrangements of the same atoms can produce different properties.

3 Learning Goals – Karlsruhe Game History of the study of matter and its behavior referred to as “chemistry” Evidence as the basis of chemical knowledge The process of science Development of quantitative skills

4 Karlsruhe Conference First International Scientific Meeting – held in Karlsruhe, Germany, October 1860 Topics to be considered – Are Atoms Real? – What is the proper formula for water? HO, H 2 O – Can we assign atomic weights to elements or only equivalent weights? Is Carbon 6 or 12? Oxygen 8 or 16?

5 Each element is made up of tiny particles called atoms. Dalton’s Atomic Theory (1808)

6 The atoms of a given element are identical; the atoms of different elements are different in some fundamental way or ways. Dalton’s Atomic Theory (continued)

7 Chemical compounds are formed when atoms of different elements combine with each other. A given compound always has the same relative numbers and types of atoms. Dalton’s Atomic Theory (continued)

8 Chemical reactions involve reorganization of the atoms—changes in the way they are bound together. The atoms themselves are not changed in a chemical reaction. Dalton’s Atomic Theory (continued)

9 Law of conservation of mass – Mass is neither created nor destroyed Law of definite proportion – A given compound always contains exactly the same proportion of elements by mass. Law of multiple proportions – If two elements can combine to form more than one compound, the masses of one element that combines with a fixed mass of the other element are in ratios of small whole numbers CuO and Cu 2 O Fe 2 O 3 and FeO Laws from Dalton’s Theory

10 Karlsruhe Conference Factions – Berzelian Empiricists (Bunsen, Frankland) – Liebig Empiricists (Liebig, Meyer) – Organic Realists (Williamson, Kekule) – Cannazzaro – Indeterminates (Pasteur, Mendeleev)

11 Berzelians Prof Berzelius was one of the leading chemists at that time. Berzelius performed over 2000 different experiments This group assigned relative weights of 1 for H, 6 for C and 16 for O. Meaning that C is 6 times as heavy as H, O is 16 times as heavy as H

12 Berzelians They reject anything that is not based on observation and measurement, ie empirical data They believe that matter is composed of electropositive and electronegative atoms

13 Example of empirical data Data for the Law of multiple proportions – 1 g oxygen reacts with g nitrogen – 1 g oxygen reacts with g nitrogen – 1 g oxygen reacts with g nitrogen – Suggests that oxygen reacts with nitrogen to give three different compounds. Look at the ratios of the mass of nitrogen that reacts with 1 gram of oxygen /0.4375= /0.4375= 4 NO, NO 2, NO 4 or NO 1/2, NO, NO 2 can’t tell which from this data

14 Liebig Prof. Justus Liebig and his group developed methods to analyze organic chemical Like the Berzelians they dealt only with empirical data and equivalent weights Organic Compounds generally are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen Organic compounds when combusted in air form water, and carbon dioxide Liebig determined the simplest formulas (empirical formulas) of any compound of C, H and O which includes sugars, alcohols, and many others. Liebig’s apparatus is still honored in the Am Chem Soc Logo

15 Gay—Lussac  Measured (under same conditions of T and P) the volumes of gases that reacted with each other. For Example for water H 2 O  But 1 g H combines with 8 g O  9 g water suggesting HO  Basic conflict between volume and mass measurements! Gay-Lussac and Avogadro (1809—1811)

16 Avogadro’s Hypothesis  At the same T and P, equal volumes of different gases contain the same number of particles.  EVEN Hypothesis – Widely Accepted Gay-Lussac and Avogadro (1809— 1811)

17 The EVEN Hypothesis Equal Volumes have even numbers – All gases are observed to follow this rule Implication is that all atoms must be the same size since a filled container of different gases weigh different amounts Therefore - Some atoms are heavier than others

18 Rise of Organic Chemistry Discovery of isomers – Same molecule but assembled differently Butyl Alcohol and ether both same formula but different properties Butyric acid and hydroxyethylene both C 2 H 2 O according to Liebig – One an acidic liquid and one a volatile alcohol – Idea of chemical structure related to properties If arrangement of atoms is important, they must be real

19 Organic Realists Many different organic compounds can have the same empirical formula but are very different, sugars are denoted as CH 2 O but glucose (blood sugar) and sucrose (table sugar) are two different substances. The EVEN hypothesis is used to determine relative weights of organic compounds

20 Canizzaro Stanisllao Canizzaro, Prof of Chemistry in Genoa, Italy Not well known

21 Indeterminates Every RTTP Game has indeterminates They are assigned roles and may have secrets but they have no predetermined opinions about the issues being debated In this game they will act as moderators of the game sessions. Their votes are critical to the outcome, so they are the ones to be convinced

22 Things All Factions Believe are True EVEN – Equal Volumes contain Equal Numbers – Hypothesis allows determination of relative weights of different compounds Law of Multiple Proportions – Compounds contain fixed ratios of elements – Some elements combine in multiple ratios

23 Things All Factions Don’t Know The Mole Concept Atomic Weights (Relative and Equivalent only) The Periodic Table Diatomic Nature of Elemental Gases, O 2, H 2 Whether Atoms are Real or just a useful idea Relative weights of Carbon and Oxygen Formulas of water and carbon oxides Concept of Covalent Bonding

24 Data for the Debate Experimental data to be presented – Combination of Metals with oxygen (oxidation) – Combination of Metals with hydrogen (reduction) – Electrolysis (decomposition) – Combustion (burn organic molecule to decompose into Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen – Gas Density measurements allowed the relative weights of atoms and molecules to be determined

25 Game Session 1 Factions describe experiments Factions present calculated results and conclusions from the data Each faction makes different assumptions – Assumptions are based on empirical evidence Answer keys for are provided for this workshop

26 Game Session 2 Examine the other groups data using your assumptions Look for consistent results Make arguments for your faction’s objectives

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