2ENERGY & MATTEREnergy is not the only thing that moves through the ecosystem. Atoms are never destroyed only transformed.Take a deep breath.The atoms you just inhaled may have been inhaled by a dinosaur millions of years ago.
36 ATOMS make up 95% of the body in most organisms OXYGENCARBONHYDROGENNITROGENPHOSPHORUSSULFURThe same molecules are passed aroundagain and again within the biosphere in____________________ cyclesBIOGEOCHEMICAL
4NITROGEN CYCLE ammonia Nitrates & nitrites N2 in Atmosphere Section 3-3N2 in AtmosphereNitrates& nitritesammoniaBIOLOGY; Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006
5WHY IS NITROGEN IMPORTANT? __________________make DNA and RNANITROGEN BASESAdenine (nitrogen base) is used in _______ATPMakes AMINO part of ____________ (proteins)amino acidsImage by RiedellImage by Riedell
679% of the atmosphere is made up of NITROGEN gas (N2) BUT we _____ use the nitrogen gaswe breathe!The bond in N2 gas is sostrong it can only be broken by___________________________________CAN’TlightningVolcanic activityfew special bacteriaImage by RiedellImage by Riedell
7Bacteria that live ______________ and in _________ relationships with plants called _________, takenitrogen from the atmosphere andturn it into ______________, a formthat is usable by plants.THIS PROCESSIS CALLED _________________in the soilsymbioticlegumesAMMONIANITROGEN FIXATION
8Other bacteria in the soil convert ammonia into ____________& _______________which plants can also use.The nitrogen we need for proteins,ATP, and nucleic acids comes fromthe _____ we eat____ the____we breathe!NITRATESNITRITESFOODNOT AIRImage from: andmodified by Riedell
9Bacteria that live ______________ also carry out the reverse process ________________ → ___________________.THIS PROCESSIS CALLED _________________in the soilNITRATES & NITRITESNITROGEN GASDENITRIFICATION
10REVIEW => NITROGEN CYCLE Why can’t we use the N in the atmosphere?In what forms do plants absorb Nitrogen?Name the processes by which N gas is converted into usable forms of nitrogen.Why is nitrogen important to living organisms?
11What is it and how does it work? The Water CycleWhat is it and how does it work?
12The Water Cycle Precipitation Condensation Water Vapor Transpiration Evaporation
13Water CycleWater never leaves the Earth. It is constantly being cycled through the atmosphere, ocean, and land. This process, known as the water cycle is driven by energy from the sun. The water cycle is crucial to the existence of life on our planet.
14WaterThe water cycle begins with water. Water is found in many places. A few of them are as follows:Lakes, rivers, oceans, ponds, puddles, reservoirs, and many other places.
15EvaporationThe next stage is evaporation. This is a process where the water is heated and turned into a water vapor.The sun is the main heat source for this process.
16CondensationThe next stage is condensation. This is where warm and cold air collide and form ice crystals that condense and form droplets of water. These water droplets eventually become to heavy and begin to fall in the form of precipitation.
17PrecipitationThe next stage is Precipitation. This is water falling to the earth in the form of snow, hail, rain, or sleet.
18CollectionDuring collection water that falls as precipitation essentially collects as surface water (water you can see above ground) or as ground water (water that collects beneath earth’s surface).
19TranspirationThe process of evaporation from plants is called transpiration. (In other words, it’s like plants sweating.)
20EvaporationIf you were to pick the first step of the water cycle, you would start with evaporation. Water everywhere, in lakes, rivers, streams, oceans, puddles, etc. may look like it does nothing, but it is always moving. In the first stage of the water cycle, known as evaporation, the sun’s invisible heat rays heat the water on any surface.
21EvaporationThis heating of the water changes the composition, or makeup, of the water from the liquid, seen here in the lake, into a gas. The gas form of water, or water vapor, is very light and rises into the air. This leads into the next stage of the water cycle known as condensation.
22CondensationDuring the process of condensation the water vapor (gas) combines in the atmosphere bumping together and forming clusters of molecules of water vapor.
23CondensationOnce enough water vapor molecules clump together they form a cloud. Clouds are essentially big puffy collections of water and moisture. Once formed as a cloud water changes its composition, or makeup, again from a gas (water vapor) back to a liquid within the cloud itself.
24CondensationEventually the water builds up and builds up within the cloud expanding its size. This is much like a dry sponge once you place it in water. When placed in water a dry sponge soaks up the water and “puffs” up. Once the cloud is full, much like a sponge, the next stage of the water cycle, precipitation, begins.
25PrecipitationDuring the process of precipitation, the cloud basically bursts from being too full of water. This causes the water to fall to the ground from the cloud in the from of precipitation. Precipitation can fall to the ground as rain, freezing rain, snow, sleet, and hail.
26Collection/Percolation The “last” stage of the water cycle is known as collection. Collection means exactly what its name implies. Water is collected on or in the ground. Water collected on the surface of the ground, as seen as the dark blue oval in the diagram, is called surface water. Surface water can consist of lakes, rivers, streams, oceans, puddles, etc. Any water that can be visibly seen on top of the ground is known as surface water. Water can also be collected underground. Water collected underground is known as ground water. The most common form of ground water that you are familiar with is the water that is absorbed from the ground and makes mud as you dig.Collected Water
27Collection/Percolation Once the water is collected, the whole process starts over again as the sun heats the water and evaporation begins. The water cycle is called a cycle because water is constantly being reused on earth. The process never stops and there are no breaks. If the water cycle ever stopped we would have no water to drink, bathe in , or swim in. This essentially means that you could be drinking the water that George Washington once used to brush his teeth with. Of course it has been cleaned again by nature so it is okay to drink!Surface Water
28Review => Water Cycle Which 2 processes put water into the atmosphere?How does water return to the earth? In what forms?Where are some of the places that water collects on/in the earth?What is transpiration?Where does transpiration occur?