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THE NITROGEN CYCLE IN SURFACE WATERS
PHYTOPLANKTON ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION O53% C27% K6.2% H5.5% N4.6% Ca1.0% S0.7% Na0.7% P0.5% Fe0.4% Mg0.4% Zn0.3% Cu0.02% B0.01% Mn0.009% Co0.0006% V0.0006% Mo0.0001% Si0.1%; DIATOMS 20%
FIGURE 12-1; N 2 IN GREEN LAKE AND BELOIE LAKE
CYANOBACTERIA AND N-FIXATION
OTHER MICROBIAL NITROGEN FIXERS Azotobacter
MEROMICTIC LAKES AND N-FIXATION
SYMBIOSIS N-FIXATION OFTEN THROUGH SYMBIOSIS WITH VASCULAR PLANTS e.g. – Alders (wetland plants) – Legumes – Azolla (aquatic fern)
AMMONIUM AND NITRATE
AMMONIUM BY-PRODUCT OF DEAMINATION NH 4 + and NH 4 OH (see p233) pHNH 4 + : NH 4 OH 63000:1 7300:1 830:1 9.51:1
NITRIFICATION NH 4 + NO 2 - Nitrosomonas – Requires O 2 ; wide range of temperature and pH NO 2 - NO 3 - Nitrobacter – Requires O 2 ; warm temperatures and low pH
DENITRIFICATION C 6 H 12 O NO NO CO 2 +6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 8NO 2 - 4N 2 + 2CO 2 + 4CO H 2 O
REDUCTION IN AN ANOXIC ENVIRONMENT
NITRIFICATION AND DENITRIFICATION
ORGANIC NITROGEN DISSOLVED ORGANIC NITROGEN (DON) PARTICULATE ORGANIC NITROGEN (PON) DON:PON INCREASES WITH EUTROPHICATION
NITRATE AND PON
INORGANIC NITROGEN IN WINTERGREEN LAKE
NITROGEN IN STREAMS
NITRATE IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY
Dead Zone summer 2011, USEPA
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