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2nd World Congress of Agroforestry, 2009 Nairobi, Kenya Agroforestry coffee systems provide adaptation to climate change while conserving ecosystem services.

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Presentation on theme: "2nd World Congress of Agroforestry, 2009 Nairobi, Kenya Agroforestry coffee systems provide adaptation to climate change while conserving ecosystem services."— Presentation transcript:

1 2nd World Congress of Agroforestry, 2009 Nairobi, Kenya Agroforestry coffee systems provide adaptation to climate change while conserving ecosystem services Helton Nonato 1, Irene Cardoso 2, Flávia Garcia 2, Lijbert Brussaard 1, Mirjam Pulleman 1, Ron de Goede 1, Alisson Francisco Xavier 2, Elpídio Fernandes-Filho 1 1 Wageningen University, The Netherlands, 2 Federal University of Viçosa, MG, Brazil,

2 Food production X Conservation X Climatic change Introduction and problem description FAO (2008); IPCC(2004); Cincotta et al. (2000); Tallis et al. (2008)

3 Lin (2007); Sediyama et al. (2001); Alegre (1959) Coffee requirements: - Temperature: 18 – 22 o C - Altitude: Biennial pattern - Management intensive - Good soil fertility Brazilian coffee production 2008 Introduction and problem description

4 Current Coffee production in MG and the future scenario Assad et al. (2004), IPCC (2004); Thomas et al. (2004) + 3 o C Loss: 69 % of area 3 decades later

5 Introduction and problem description SOS Mata Atlântica/INPE (2008); Ribeiro et al. (2009) Original rainforest Remaining rainforest

6 > 83 % fragments 83 % fragments < 50 ha > 60 % are at > 1000 m altitude

7 Rainforest fragments X Coffee plantation Fight for the same location!

8 Agroforestry experimentation for soil quality improvement 39 familiar experiments 7 municipalities First step: 1993 > 600 families involved 20 municipalities 13 years later: 2006 Study site

9 Objective To assess and the capacity of agroforestry coffee management as compared to full-sun coffee to provide: Climate change adaptation Biodiversity conservation Ecosystem services To document the regional impact of AF on CC, BC, ES based on scientific data

10 Approach Native forest Agroforestry Sun-coffee Existing data Indicators - Soil - Biodiversity - Environmental data Models already existing GIS Results were averaged across farms

11 Results Climate Change Adaptation Temperature in coffee systems oCoC

12 Sequential Hydric balance * Thornthwaite, Mather (1995) * Rolim, Sentelhas (1998); Thornthwaite, Mather (1995) Deficiency Excess Results Climate Change Adaptation JAN FEV MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC F (soil texture, crop type, solar radiation, altitude, evapotranspiration, rainfall and temperature)

13 73 species 70 % native 62 genera 90 % native Leguminosae Results Biodiversity conservation

14 Richness and similarity in tree species composition in relation to neighboring forest fragments SiteTree richness% similarity with forest AF13419 AF2269 AF32114 AF44715 AF53221 AF63010 AF72610 AF8477 Average range( )(7 - 21) * average species richness of forest fragments = 62 (range )

15 Results Biodiversity conservation

16 Results Carbon Sequestration Soil organic carbon (g.kg -1 ) Depth (cm)

17 Soil erosion control Franco et al. (2002) Agroforestry Full-sun coffee Agroforestry Full-sun coffee Kg soil.ha.year Results Ecosystem services

18 (per ha) Conventional Agroforestry Indicators (per ha) Conventional Agroforestry Coffee density (# plants) 2,650 2,050 Productivity (kg) 2,094 1,271 Costs (R$) 2, Net income (R$) 1,887 1,792 Cost/benefit (ratio) Extra products agroforestry (R$) Papaya Banana Citrus Mango, avocado, guava, jack trees Palm trees, ficus fruit, prune trees Sub-total Total income (R$*/ha) 1,887 2,493 Profitability Results Ecosystem services * Brazilian real (0.39 Euro)

19 Discussion and conclusions Local experiences have clear benefit for the future of coffee management and production in complex areas Challenge: involvement of local institutions. Coffee agroforestry systems in ZM provide highlights to promote/to encourage agricultural diversification. Challenge: interdisciplinary integration and long term research, monitoring. Future challenge: adaptation and scaling up

20 Thank you for your attention. Pictures #: CTA/ZM, Helton Nonato, Irene M. Cardoso, Cyro José, Projeto Doces Matas


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