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THE NITROGEN CYCLE
Warm Up How much of the atmosphere is made up of Nitrogen? Why do plants and animals need nitrogen? Read “The nitrogen cycle” and answer questions 1-10
What is Nitrogen? -the most abundant element in the earths atmosphere (78% of the atmosphere) -can’t be absorbed by animals/plants until it is converted by the nitrogen cycle -needed to make protein
Nitrogen Fixation-converting nitrogen to ammonia. Bacteria along with electrical storms can help convert Nitrogen gas (N 2 ) into ammonia (NH 4 + ) Lightning provides sufficient energy to split the nitrogen atoms of nitrogen gas Forming oxides of nitrogen NO x and NO 2 © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Nitrification-Ammonia to Nitrates by Bacteria This involves two oxidation processes The ammonia produced by ammonification is first converted to nitrite (by bacteria): NH 3 + 1 1 / 2 O 2 NO 2 - + H 2 O The nitrite is then converted to nitrate (by bacteria): NO 3 - + 1 / 2 O 2 NO 3 - The bacteria to do this are chemoautotrophs © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Ammonification-Nitrogen to Ammonia by decomposition. Nitrogen enters the soil through the decomposition of protein in dead organic matter Creates ammonia © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Denitrification-Returning Nitrogen to the Atmosphere Nitrates and nitrites can be used for their oxygen for bacteria once the oxygen is used.....Nitrogen (N 2 ) is returned to atmosphere. 2NO 3 - 3O 2 + N 2 2NO 2 - 2O 2 + N 2 © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Root uptake Nitrate NO 3 - Plant protein Soil organic nitrogen Nitrogen from the atmosphere Biological fixation Atmospheric fixation Out gasing Atmospheric Nitrogen 4 000 000 000 Gt © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
University of Sydney Alafalfa (Medicago sativa) USDA - ARS Root nodules
The nitrogen fixers Cyanobacteria are nitrogen fixers that also fix carbon (these are photosynthetic) Rhizobium bacteria are mutualistic with certain plant species e.g. Legumes They grow in root nodules Azotobacter are bacteria associated with the rooting zone (the rhizosphere) of plants in grasslands © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Nitrate NO 3 - Atmospheric fixation Out gassin g Plant protein Atmospheric Nitrogen Ammonium NH 4 + Soil organic nitrogen The human impact Biological fixation Industrial fixation © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Industrial N-Fixation The Haber-Bosch Process N 2 + 3H 2 2NH 3 High temperatures (500°C) High pressures (250 atmospheres) The energy require comes from burning fossil fuels (coal, gas or oil) Hydrogen is produced from natural gas (methane) or other hydrocarbon © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
The different sources of fixed nitrogen Sources of fixed nitrogenProduction / M tonnes a -1 Biological175 Industrial50 Internal Combustion20 Atmospheric10 © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Eutrophication-Nitrogen into water. Nitrogen finding its way into bodies of water Usually washed from draining soil When fertiliser is added to these soils it too will be washed out into water bodies This leads to a serious form of water pollution © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Fertilisers washed into river or lake New limiting factor imposes itself Sewage or other organic waste Eutrophication © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Increased Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) Hot water from industry (Thermal pollution) Pollution from oil or detergents Reduction in dissolved O 2 Making things worse! © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
The death of a lake Death/emigration of freshwater fauna Methaemoglobinaemia in infants Stomach cancer link (WHO limit for nitrates 10mg dm -3 ) Increased nitrite levels NO 3 - NO 2 - Reduction in dissolved O 2 © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
THE NITROGEN CYCLE. Nitrates are essential for plant growth Root uptake Nitrate NO 3 - Plant protein © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS.
Nitrogen Cycle The nitrogen cycle is the movement of nitrogen through different environmental segments.
Nitrogen and carbon cycle Ruben A. Hernandez Nitrogen Nitrogen is important for all living organisms and is used for amino acids, DNA, and RNA. About.
Nitrogen Cycle Chapter 3 Section 3.4 continued. Nitrogen Cycle 1. Living things require nitrogen to make amino acids, which are used to build proteins.
The Nitrogen Cycle An essential part of proteins, DNA and other compounds needed for life…
Where Nitrogen is Stored Large Stores In the atmosphere where it exists as a gas (78%) Oceans and within organic matter in soil Small Stores Within terrestrial.
The Carbon Cycle. Why is Carbon important? All living things are made of carbon!!! Calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) makes up animal skeletons Carbon Dioxide.
Circulation of Nutrients Environmental Biology Unit 2 Advanced Higher Biology.
The Nitrogen Cycle Ch 7 Part 3. Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen cycle: the routes that nitrogen atoms take through the environment –Nitrogen gas (N 2 ) is the.
NITROGEN CYCLE. Where is nitrogen found in the environment.
Matter is not created or destroyed Law of Conservation of Matter.
Ecosystems Section 3 Ecology 4.3 Notes. Ecosystems Section 3 Objectives Describe each of the biogeochemical cycles.
The Nitrogen Cycle
Nitrogen Cycle Describe the role of decomposers in the decomposition of organic material. Describe how microorganisms recycle nitrogen within ecosystems.
Learning outcomes Describe the cycle of carbon through the ecosystem Describe how humans have affected the carbon cycle.
Cycling maintains homeostasis (balance) in the environment. 1.Water cycle 2. Carbon cycle 3. Nitrogen cycle Water cycle-
Ecosystems Section 3 Section 3: Cycling of Matter Preview Bellringer Key Ideas Water Cycle Carbon and Oxygen Cycles Nitrogen Cycle Phosphorus Cycle Summary.
The Nitrogen Cycle: Who Cares? Nitrogen is an essential component of the amino acids that make up proteins and is a basic element of living things.
The Nitrogen Cycle A2 OCR Biology Asking questions is a sign of INTELLIGENCE Unfortunately all questions must wait until the end of the lecture.
The Nitrogen Cycle Science 10 “Old Outcomes”. The Importance of Nitrogen Nitrogen is a main ingredient in fertilizer. Why does fertilizer produce better.
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES. The flow of energy in the biosphere is in one direction only: from the sun, through living organisms, into the environment, and.
1.4.8 Nutrient Recycling. 2 Nutrient Recycling (1/3) There is a limited amount of nutrients on earth e.g. you are probably aware of the water cycle –
Nitrogen Cycle APES Ch. 4 Miller 17 th ed.. Fixation Atmospheric Nitrogen (N 2 ) must go through a process— nitrogen fixation This is the first step of.
CARBON Facts Proteins, fats and carbohydrates are made of CARBON You are made out of CARBON Fossil Fuels (oil, natural gas, coal) are stored CARBON.
1.4.8 Nutrient Recycling. 2 Need to know Define the term: nutrient recycling by organisms. 1.Outline and draw the Carbon Cycle. 2.Outline and draw the.
Earth Science/Biology Standard 7a. Students know the carbon cycle of photosynthesis and respiration and the nitrogen cycle.
Biogeochemical Cycles CP Environmental Science. Biogeochemical Cycles The chemical interactions that exist between the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere,
Nutrient Cycles Environmental Science. A Generalized Cycle Materials often move between the regions of the earth- - Atmosphere - Hydrosphere - Lithosphere.
BIOCHEMICAL CYCLES. The movement of materials through the biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) parts of an ecosystem BIOCHEMICAL CYCLES.
What is the Nitrogen cycle The nitrogen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle that describes the transformations of nitrogen and nitrogen- containing compounds.
Background All life requires Nitrogen – Proteins – Amino Acids – Nucleic Acid 79% of the air is N2 – This form cannot be used by most organisms – Organisms.
The Nitrogen Cycle. Where is nitrogen found in the environment?
The Water Cycle 1.Water cycles between the oceans, atmosphere and land. All living organisms require water. A. Water enters the atmosphere as water vapor,
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. MATTER CYCLING IN ECOSYSTEMS Nutrient Cycles: Global Recycling Global Cycles recycle nutrients through the earth’s air,
Section 2, p The cycling of materials What element is the essential component of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates? Carbon.
BIOCHEMICAL CYCLES. Fig. 3-7, p. 55 Nitrogen cycle Biosphere Heat in the environment Heat Phosphorus cycle Carbon cycle Oxygen cycle Water cycle.
Carbon & Nitrogen Cycles. Recycling Matter All things living are made of matter Total amount of matter on Earth is limited, so it must be recycled again.
The Nitrogen Cycle. Nitrogen Cycle 1. Our atmosphere contains about 20% oxygen, _____% nitrogen, and 1% other gases. 78.
Nutrient Cycles. Heat in the environment Nitrogen cycle Biosphere Heat Phosphorus cycle Carbon cycle Oxygen cycle Water cycle Life on the earth depends.
Stop! What is a cycle? Discuss A series of events that repeat, with no beginning or end. Stop! Why is Nitrogen important to us? Nitrogen makes up the proteins.
Chapter 3. Matter recycles within and b/w ecosystems Matter moves through in cycles Never created or destroyed- just changes form!
Cody Guenzler, Period 3 Nitrogen Fixation Conversion of Nitrogen Assimilation Ammonification Nitrification Denitrification.
THE NITROGEN CYCLE. Importance of Nitrogen in amino acids (building blocks of proteins) in nucleic acids (ex. DNA)
The Nitrogen Cycle. Nitrogen (N) is an essential component of DNA, RNA, and proteins, the building blocks of life.DNARNA proteins All organisms require.
1. What is Nitrogen? N makes up about 78% of our atmosphere. N in the atmosphere it is mostly in the form of ______, which is a compound that plants.
Cycles of Matter In an Hour or Less!!!!. Recycling in the Biosphere Unlike the one-way flow of energy, matter is recycled within and between ecosystems.
Cycles of Matter 3-3. Energy and matter move through the biosphere very differently Energy has a 1 way flow Matter can be recycled within & between ecosystems.
Cycling of Matter and Nutrient Cycles. The Biosphere Biosphere is the living surface of earth Lithosphere is the hard part of the earths surface Hydrosphere.
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