Air pollution Sources : VehiclesFactoriesHousesAerosolsFarming Effects: SmogAcid rainClimate change
Nitrogen pollution Sources: Car fumes, factories, fertilisers Problem: Producing too much nitrogen Effects: Acid rain, harming ecosystems, contributing to global warming
Where do you find the most nitrogen pollution? CountrysideSuburbanCity
Bio-indicators Bio-indicators are living organisms that can be used to monitor the health of an environment or ecosystem. Examples include: Canaries used by coal miners Invertebrates in streams e.g. Mayfly nymph
What is a lichen? I have no leaves I have no roots I have no stem I have a flattened body
Lichens – Two lives in one A lichen is a partnership between a fungus and an alga. The fungus (mycobiont) provides protection and the alga (photobiont) provides food. Reproduce by fragmentation or through soredia
Symbiosis or controlled parasitism? By existing together they can live in places they couldn’t survive on their own.
Where do lichens grow? African desertsAlpine peaksRocky shores Anywhere – even in the most extreme environments HotCold
Lichen biodiversity 18,000 identified worldwide 1,700 in Britain Some lichens are more tolerant to pollution than others I hate nitrogen! I nitrogen! BushyLeafyCrusty
1 2 3 Spot the lichen
Activity 1 – lichens on trees Sample 4 deciduous trees – un shaded Identify the tree species Measure the girth of the tree Identify all indicator lichens on one face of the trunk Look at the twigs of the tree – record lichens Record insects that you see 3124
Tar spot Fungus Rhytisma acerinum Sensitive to pollution Growth is reduced by sulphur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen The more tar spot the less polluted the air Count as 2 spots
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