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WHAT IS PROTEIN?. ENERGY YIELDING NUTRIENT What is protein composed of? What is protein composed of? What are amino acids? What are amino acids? Proteins.

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Presentation on theme: "WHAT IS PROTEIN?. ENERGY YIELDING NUTRIENT What is protein composed of? What is protein composed of? What are amino acids? What are amino acids? Proteins."— Presentation transcript:

1 WHAT IS PROTEIN?

2 ENERGY YIELDING NUTRIENT What is protein composed of? What is protein composed of? What are amino acids? What are amino acids? Proteins are made up of 20 Amino Acids in different combinations. The body probably has at least 30,000 types of protein. The number of amino acids and the order in which they are linked determine the type of protein the body can make. Proteins are made up of 20 Amino Acids in different combinations. The body probably has at least 30,000 types of protein. The number of amino acids and the order in which they are linked determine the type of protein the body can make.

3 Question? How does the chemical structure of protein differ from carbohydrates and fats? How does the chemical structure of protein differ from carbohydrates and fats?

4 Types of Amino Acids You need 20 Amino Acids for good health. You need 20 Amino Acids for good health. 11 ____________________________ AMINO ACIDS are amino acids your body can make or synthesize from other compounds 11 ____________________________ AMINO ACIDS are amino acids your body can make or synthesize from other compounds 9 ______________________________AMINO ACIDS are the Amino acids your body cannot make and you muct get from yhour diet. 9 ______________________________AMINO ACIDS are the Amino acids your body cannot make and you muct get from yhour diet.

5 Question? What is the difference between essential and non essential amino acids? What is the difference between essential and non essential amino acids?

6 Essential Amino Acids (Must eat these) 1. Histidine 1. Histidine 2. Isoleucine 2. Isoleucine 3. Leucine 3. Leucine 4. Lysine 4. Lysine 5. Methionine +cysteine 5. Methionine +cysteine 6. Phenylalanine +tyrosine 6. Phenylalanine +tyrosine 7. Threonine 7. Threonine 8. Tryptophan 8. Tryptophan 9. Valine 9. Valine

7 Nonessential Amino Acids (11) Made/Synthesized by the Body 1. Alanine 1. Alanine 2. Arginine 2. Arginine 3. Asparagine 3. Asparagine 4. Aspartic acid 4. Aspartic acid 5. Cysteine 5. Cysteine 6. Glutamic acid 6. Glutamic acid 7. Glutamine 7. Glutamine 8. Glycine 8. Glycine 9. Proline 9. Proline 10. Serine 10. Serine 11. Tyrosine 11. Tyrosine

8 FUNCTIONS OF PROTEIN IN THE BODY Build and Maintain Tissues Build and Maintain Tissues Make enzymes, hormones, antibodies Make enzymes, hormones, antibodies Regulate Mineral and Fluid Balance Regulate Mineral and Fluid Balance Maintain Acid Base Balance Maintain Acid Base Balance Carry Vital substances (oxygen) Carry Vital substances (oxygen) Provide Energy Provide Energy

9 It Should be noted….. All 20 amino acids are necessary for protein synthesis in the body, and must be present simultaneously for optimal maintenance of body growth and function! All 20 amino acids are necessary for protein synthesis in the body, and must be present simultaneously for optimal maintenance of body growth and function!

10 COMPLETE & INCOMPLETE PROTEINS COMPLETE PROTEIN COMPLETE PROTEIN -This means __________the essential amino acids humans need are present in the proteins. -This means __________the essential amino acids humans need are present in the proteins. -What are sources of completes protein? -What are sources of completes protein?

11 COMPLETE & INCOMPLETE PROTEIN INCOMPLETE PROTEIN Plants provide Incomplete Protein. These proteins are missing or short of one or more of the essential amino acids. Plants provide Incomplete Protein. These proteins are missing or short of one or more of the essential amino acids. Explain Complementary Proteins-

12 NITROGEN BALANCE Nitrogen balance is the comparison of the nitrogen a person ____________________ with the nitrogen he or she ____________________. Nitrogen balance is the comparison of the nitrogen a person ____________________ with the nitrogen he or she ____________________. Most healthy adults are in NITROGEN BALANCE. Most healthy adults are in NITROGEN BALANCE. This means they excrete the same amount of nitrogen as they take in. This means they excrete the same amount of nitrogen as they take in. It is said they are “in nitrogen balance” It is said they are “in nitrogen balance”

13 NITROGEN BALANCE A person who is building new tissue takes in more protein than he or she excretes. This person is said to be in: A person who is building new tissue takes in more protein than he or she excretes. This person is said to be in: _____________________NITROGEN BALANCE _____________________NITROGEN BALANCE Someone whose tissues are deteriorating is losing more nitrogen than he or she consumes. This person is said to be in : Someone whose tissues are deteriorating is losing more nitrogen than he or she consumes. This person is said to be in : _____________________ NITROGEN BALANC _____________________ NITROGEN BALANC

14 Nitrogen Balance What is a situation for each case? What is a situation for each case? Positive- Positive- Negative- Negative-

15 PROTEIN DEFICIENCY Protein-energy malnutrition is a condition cause by a lack of calories and proteins in the diet. Symptoms of PEM include diarrhea and various nutrient deficiencies….. Protein-energy malnutrition is a condition cause by a lack of calories and proteins in the diet. Symptoms of PEM include diarrhea and various nutrient deficiencies….. The most common is ________________________________ a protein deficiency disease. The disease is common in poor countries. The most common is ________________________________ a protein deficiency disease. The disease is common in poor countries. ___________________________ is a wasting disease caused by a lack of calories and protein. It affects children. The muscles and tissues begin to waste away. ___________________________ is a wasting disease caused by a lack of calories and protein. It affects children. The muscles and tissues begin to waste away.

16 Athletes and Protein Most athletes consume far too much protein and, in doing so, reduce the intake of other essential nutrients that are critical to achieving athletic success.

17 DO ATHLETES NEED MORE PROTEIN? Primary energy nutrient for athletes is CARBOHYDRATES! Primary energy nutrient for athletes is CARBOHYDRATES! Some research indicates that athletes should consume grams of protein per kilogram body weight. Some research indicates that athletes should consume grams of protein per kilogram body weight. Endurance athletes grams per kilogram of body weight. Endurance athletes grams per kilogram of body weight. This recommendation is a 50 to 100 % increase in the RDA set for non-athletes………. But research is still continuing. This recommendation is a 50 to 100 % increase in the RDA set for non-athletes………. But research is still continuing.

18 How Much Protein Do I Need Daily? How Much Protein Do I Need Daily? Step 1 Convert your weight to kilograms (1 kilogram = 2.2 pounds of body weight) _____Your weight ÷ 2.2 = ______ your weight in kilograms your weight in kilograms Step 2 The body needs.8 gm protein per kilogram of body weight. (Athletes need gm per kilogram) Multiply your body in kilograms x.8gm _______Your weight in kilograms x.8 = _______ Total Protein Need for the Day 154 lbs/2.2 = 70 kilograms 154 lbs/2.2 = 70 kilograms 70 x.8 = 56 grams of protein per day 70 x.8 = 56 grams of protein per day

19 Nitrogen Balance Goal is to remain in a nitrogen- balanced state Goal is to remain in a nitrogen- balanced state Know the amount of protein required to remain in this state Know the amount of protein required to remain in this state Nonathletes- 0.8 grams/ per kilogram of body weight Nonathletes- 0.8 grams/ per kilogram of body weight Athletes grams /kilogram of body weight Athletes grams /kilogram of body weight Both are based on the consumption of total caloric intake Both are based on the consumption of total caloric intake

20 What is your daily protein need?

21 Higher protein requirement for athletes is based on four factors… 1. higher lean body mass 1. higher lean body mass 2. lose small amount of protein in urine 2. lose small amount of protein in urine 3. burn small amount during physical activity 3. burn small amount during physical activity 4. require additional protein to recover from muscle damage 4. require additional protein to recover from muscle damage

22 High protein diets Causes overabundance of nitrogen waste Causes overabundance of nitrogen waste Liver turns nitrogen waste into urea which must be excreted in the urine Liver turns nitrogen waste into urea which must be excreted in the urine This also causes kidneys and liver to work harder This also causes kidneys and liver to work harder Increase in urine which can lead to dehydration Increase in urine which can lead to dehydration Increase excretion of calcium in urine Increase excretion of calcium in urine Tend to be high in fat, which may increase risk of cardiovascular disease Tend to be high in fat, which may increase risk of cardiovascular disease

23 Exercise High protein foods have long gastric emptying time High protein foods have long gastric emptying time Protein added to sports beverage that is consumed during competition may increase the risk of gastrointestinal distress Protein added to sports beverage that is consumed during competition may increase the risk of gastrointestinal distress Reduces content of what athlete really needs Reduces content of what athlete really needs Majority of energy in pre-excersice meal or during exercise should come from carbs Majority of energy in pre-excersice meal or during exercise should come from carbs Post exercise meal may have addition of some protein for muscle recovery ; majority should be from carbs to replenish glycogen Post exercise meal may have addition of some protein for muscle recovery ; majority should be from carbs to replenish glycogen 0.1 gram/ kilogram of athletes weight 0.1 gram/ kilogram of athletes weight


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