2ENERGY YIELDING NUTRIENT What is protein composed of?What are amino acids?Proteins are made up of 20 Amino Acids in different combinations. The body probably has at least 30,000 types of protein. The number of amino acids and the order in which they are linked determine the type of protein the body can make.
3Question?How does the chemical structure of protein differ from carbohydrates and fats?
4Types of Amino AcidsYou need 20 Amino Acids for good health.11 ____________________________ AMINO ACIDS are amino acids your body can make or synthesize from other compounds9 ______________________________AMINO ACIDS are the Amino acids your body cannot make and you muct get from yhour diet.
5Question?What is the difference between essential and non essential amino acids?
7Nonessential Amino Acids (11) Made/Synthesized by the Body 1. Alanine2. Arginine3. Asparagine4. Aspartic acid5. Cysteine6. Glutamic acid7. Glutamine8. Glycine9. Proline10. Serine11. Tyrosine
8FUNCTIONS OF PROTEIN IN THE BODY Build and Maintain TissuesMake enzymes, hormones, antibodiesRegulate Mineral and Fluid BalanceMaintain Acid Base BalanceCarry Vital substances (oxygen)Provide Energy
9It Should be noted…..All 20 amino acids are necessary for protein synthesis in the body, and must be present simultaneously for optimal maintenance of body growth and function!
10COMPLETE & INCOMPLETE PROTEINS -This means __________the essential amino acids humans need are present in the proteins.-What are sources of completes protein?
11COMPLETE & INCOMPLETE PROTEIN Plants provide Incomplete Protein. These proteins are missing or short of one or more of the essential amino acids.Explain Complementary Proteins-
12NITROGEN BALANCENitrogen balance is the comparison of the nitrogen a person ____________________ with the nitrogen he or she ____________________.Most healthy adults are in NITROGEN BALANCE.This means they excrete the same amount of nitrogen as they take in.It is said they are “in nitrogen balance”
13NITROGEN BALANCEA person who is building new tissue takes in more protein than he or she excretes. This person is said to be in:_____________________NITROGEN BALANCESomeone whose tissues are deteriorating is losing more nitrogen than he or she consumes. This person is said to be in :_____________________ NITROGEN BALANC
14Nitrogen Balance What is a situation for each case? Positive- Negative-
15PROTEIN DEFICIENCYProtein-energy malnutrition is a condition cause by a lack of calories and proteins in the diet. Symptoms of PEM include diarrhea and various nutrient deficiencies…..The most common is ________________________________ a protein deficiency disease. The disease is common in poor countries.___________________________ is a wasting disease caused by a lack of calories and protein. It affects children. The muscles and tissues begin to waste away.
16Athletes and ProteinMost athletes consume far too much protein and, in doing so, reduce the intake of other essential nutrients that are critical to achieving athletic success.
17DO ATHLETES NEED MORE PROTEIN? Primary energy nutrient for athletes is CARBOHYDRATES!Some research indicates that athletes should consume grams of protein per kilogram body weight.Endurance athletes grams per kilogram of body weight.This recommendation is a 50 to 100 % increase in the RDA set for non-athletes………. But research is still continuing.
18How Much Protein Do I Need Daily? Step 1Convert your weight to kilograms(1 kilogram = 2.2 pounds of body weight)_____Your weight ÷ 2.2 = ______your weight in kilogramsStep 2The body needs .8 gm protein per kilogram of body weight. (Athletes need gm per kilogram)Multiply your body in kilograms x .8gm_______Your weight in kilograms x .8 = _______Total Protein Need for the Day154 lbs/2.2 = 70 kilograms70 x .8 = 56 grams of protein per day
19Nitrogen Balance Goal is to remain in a nitrogen- balanced state Know the amount of protein required to remain in this stateNonathletes- 0.8 grams/ per kilogram of body weightAthletes grams /kilogram of body weightBoth are based on the consumption of total caloric intake
21Higher protein requirement for athletes is based on four factors… 1. higher lean body mass2. lose small amount of protein in urine3. burn small amount during physical activity4. require additional protein to recover from muscle damage
22High protein diets Causes overabundance of nitrogen waste Liver turns nitrogen waste into urea which must be excreted in the urineThis also causes kidneys and liver to work harderIncrease in urine which can lead to dehydrationIncrease excretion of calcium in urineTend to be high in fat, which may increase risk of cardiovascular disease
23Exercise High protein foods have long gastric emptying time Protein added to sports beverage that is consumed during competition may increase the risk of gastrointestinal distressReduces content of what athlete really needsMajority of energy in pre-excersice meal or during exercise should come from carbsPost exercise meal may have addition of some protein for muscle recovery ; majority should be from carbs to replenish glycogen0.1 gram/ kilogram of athletes weight